28 U.S.C. § 1605A

Current through P.L. 117-113 (published on www.congress.gov on 04/19/2022), except for [P. L. 117-103]
Section 1605A - Terrorism exception to the jurisdictional immunity of a foreign state
(a) IN GENERAL.-
(1) NO IMMUNITY.-A foreign state shall not be immune from the jurisdiction of courts of the United States or of the States in any case not otherwise covered by this chapter in which money damages are sought against a foreign state for personal injury or death that was caused by an act of torture, extrajudicial killing, aircraft sabotage, hostage taking, or the provision of material support or resources for such an act if such act or provision of material support or resources is engaged in by an official, employee, or agent of such foreign state while acting within the scope of his or her office, employment, or agency.
(2) CLAIM HEARD.-The court shall hear a claim under this section if-
(A)
(i)
(I) the foreign state was designated as a state sponsor of terrorism at the time the act described in paragraph (1) occurred, or was so designated as a result of such act, and, subject to subclause (II), either remains so designated when the claim is filed under this section or was so designated within the 6-month period before the claim is filed under this section; or
(II) in the case of an action that is refiled under this section by reason of section 1083(c)(2)(A) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 or is filed under this section by reason of section 1083(c)(3) of that Act, the foreign state was designated as a state sponsor of terrorism when the original action or the related action under section 1605(a)(7) (as in effect before the enactment of this section) or section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (as contained in section 101(c) of division A of Public Law 104-208) was filed;
(ii) the claimant or the victim was, at the time the act described in paragraph (1) occurred-
(I) a national of the United States;
(II) a member of the armed forces; or
(III) otherwise an employee of the Government of the United States, or of an individual performing a contract awarded by the United States Government, acting within the scope of the employee's employment; and
(iii) in a case in which the act occurred in the foreign state against which the claim has been brought, the claimant has afforded the foreign state a reasonable opportunity to arbitrate the claim in accordance with the accepted international rules of arbitration; or
(B) the act described in paragraph (1) is related to Case Number 1:00CV03110 (EGS) in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.
(b) LIMITATIONS.-An action may be brought or maintained under this section if the action is commenced, or a related action was commenced under section 1605(a)(7) (before the date of the enactment of this section) or section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (as contained in section 101(c) of division A of Public Law 104-208) not later than the latter of-
(1) 10 years after April 24, 1996; or
(2) 10 years after the date on which the cause of action arose.
(c) PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION.-A foreign state that is or was a state sponsor of terrorism as described in subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), and any official, employee, or agent of that foreign state while acting within the scope of his or her office, employment, or agency, shall be liable to-
(1) a national of the United States,
(2) a member of the armed forces,
(3) an employee of the Government of the United States, or of an individual performing a contract awarded by the United States Government, acting within the scope of the employee's employment, or
(4) the legal representative of a person described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3),

for personal injury or death caused by acts described in subsection (a)(1) of that foreign state, or of an official, employee, or agent of that foreign state, for which the courts of the United States may maintain jurisdiction under this section for money damages. In any such action, damages may include economic damages, solatium, pain and suffering, and punitive damages. In any such action, a foreign state shall be vicariously liable for the acts of its officials, employees, or agents.

(d) ADDITIONAL DAMAGES.-After an action has been brought under subsection (c), actions may also be brought for reasonably foreseeable property loss, whether insured or uninsured, third party liability, and loss claims under life and property insurance policies, by reason of the same acts on which the action under subsection (c) is based.
(e) SPECIAL MASTERS.-
(1) IN GENERAL.-The courts of the United States may appoint special masters to hear damage claims brought under this section.
(2) TRANSFER OF FUNDS.-The Attorney General shall transfer, from funds available for the program under section 1404C of the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 ( 42 U.S.C. 10603c ),1 to the Administrator of the United States district court in which any case is pending which has been brought or maintained under this section such funds as may be required to cover the costs of special masters appointed under paragraph (1). Any amount paid in compensation to any such special master shall constitute an item of court costs.
(f) APPEAL.-In an action brought under this section, appeals from orders not conclusively ending the litigation may only be taken pursuant to section 1292(b) of this title.
(g) PROPERTY DISPOSITION.-
(1) IN GENERAL.-In every action filed in a United States district court in which jurisdiction is alleged under this section, the filing of a notice of pending action pursuant to this section, to which is attached a copy of the complaint filed in the action, shall have the effect of establishing a lien of lis pendens upon any real property or tangible personal property that is-
(A) subject to attachment in aid of execution, or execution, under section 1610;
(B) located within that judicial district; and
(C) titled in the name of any defendant, or titled in the name of any entity controlled by any defendant if such notice contains a statement listing such controlled entity.
(2) NOTICE.-A notice of pending action pursuant to this section shall be filed by the clerk of the district court in the same manner as any pending action and shall be indexed by listing as defendants all named defendants and all entities listed as controlled by any defendant.
(3) ENFORCEABILITY.-Liens established by reason of this subsection shall be enforceable as provided in chapter 111 of this title.
(h) DEFINITIONS.-For purposes of this section-
(1) the term "aircraft sabotage" has the meaning given that term in Article 1 of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation;
(2) the term "hostage taking" has the meaning given that term in Article 1 of the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages;
(3) the term "material support or resources" has the meaning given that term in section 2339A of title 18;
(4) the term "armed forces" has the meaning given that term in section 101 of title 10;
(5) the term "national of the United States" has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22) );
(6) the term "state sponsor of terrorism" means a country the government of which the Secretary of State has determined, for purposes of section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)),1 section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 ( 22 U.S.C. 2371 ), section 40 of the Arms Export Control Act ( 22 U.S.C. 2780 ), or any other provision of law, is a government that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism; and
(7) the terms "torture" and "extrajudicial killing" have the meaning given those terms in section 3 of the Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991 ( 28 U.S.C. 1350 note).

1 See References in Text note below.

28 U.S.C. § 1605A

Added Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, §1083(a)(1), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 338.

EDITORIAL NOTES

REFERENCES IN TEXT Section 1083(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(i)(II), is section 1083(c) of Pub. L. 110-181 which is set out as a note below.The enactment of this section and the date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A)(i)(II) and (b), refers to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110-181 which was approved Jan. 28, 2008.Section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A)(i)(II) and (b), is Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §589], which is set out as a note under section 1605 of this title. Section 1404C of the Victims of Crime Act of 1984, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is section 1404C of chapter XIV of title II of Pub. L. 98-473 which was classified to section 10603c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as section 20106 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.Section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, referred to in subsec. (h)(6), is section 6(j) of Pub. L. 96-72 which was classified to section 2405(j) of the former Appendix to Title 50, War and National Defense, prior to editorial reclassification as section 4605(j) of Title 50, and was repealed by Pub. L. 115-232, div. A, title XVII, §1766(a), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2232. Section 3 of the Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991, referred to in subsec. (h)(7), is section 3 of Pub. L. 102-256 which is set out as a note under section 1350 of this title.

STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES

EFFECTIVE DATE Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, §1083(c), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 342, provided that:"(1) IN GENERAL.-The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 1605, 1607 and 1610 of this title and section 20104 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement] shall apply to any claim arising under section 1605A of title 28, United States Code."(2) PRIOR ACTIONS.-"(A) IN GENERAL.-With respect to any action that-"(i) was brought under section 1605(a)(7) of title 28, United States Code, or section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (as contained in section 101(c) of division A of Public Law 104-208) [ 28 U.S.C. 1605 note], before the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008], "(ii) relied upon either such provision as creating a cause of action,"(iii) has been adversely affected on the grounds that either or both of these provisions fail to create a cause of action against the state, and"(iv) as of such date of enactment, is before the courts in any form, including on appeal or motion under rule 60(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure [28 U.S.C. App.],that action, and any judgment in the action shall, on motion made by plaintiffs to the United States district court where the action was initially brought, or judgment in the action was initially entered, be given effect as if the action had originally been filed under section 1605A(c) of title 28, United States Code. "(B) DEFENSES WAIVED.-The defenses of res judicata, collateral estoppel, and limitation period are waived- "(i) in any action with respect to which a motion is made under subparagraph (A), or"(ii) in any action that was originally brought, before the date of the enactment of this Act, under section 1605(a)(7) of title 28, United States Code, or section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (as contained in section 101(c) of division A of Public Law 104-208), and is refiled under section 1605A(c) of title 28, United States Code, to the extent such defenses are based on the claim in the action. "(C) TIME LIMITATIONS.-A motion may be made or an action may be refiled under subparagraph (A) only- "(i) if the original action was commenced not later than the latter of- "(I) 10 years after April 24, 1996; or"(II) 10 years after the cause of action arose; and"(ii) within the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act. "(3) RELATED ACTIONS.-If an action arising out of an act or incident has been timely commenced under section 1605(a)(7) of title 28, United States Code, or section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 (as contained in section 101(c) of division A of Public Law 104-208) [ 28 U.S.C. 1605 note], any other action arising out of the same act or incident may be brought under section 1605A of title 28, United States Code, if the action is commenced not later than the latter of 60 days after-"(A) the date of the entry of judgment in the original action; or "(B) the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008]."(4) PRESERVING THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURTS.-Nothing in section 1503 of the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2003 ( Public Law 108-11 117 Stat. 579) has ever authorized, directly or indirectly, the making inapplicable of any provision of chapter 97 of title 28, United States Code, or the removal of the jurisdiction of any court of the United States."

SEVERABILITY Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, §1083(e), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 344, provided that: "If any provision of this section [enacting this section and amending sections 1605, 1607 and 1610 of this title and section 20104 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement] or the amendments made by this section, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this section and such amendments, and the application of such provision to other persons not similarly situated or to other circumstances, shall not be affected by such invalidation."

SUDAN CLAIMS RESOLUTION Pub. L. 116-260, 134 Stat. 1821, provided in part: "That any unexpended balances remaining following the distributions described in section 7(b)(1) of the Sudan Claims Resolution Act [probably means section 1707(b)(1) of title XVII of div. FF of Pub. L. 116-260; see note below] that are determined by the Secretary of State, not later than September 30, 2030, and at the close of each fiscal year thereafter, to be excess to the needs of such distributions, shall be returned to the general fund of the Treasury". Pub. L. 116-260 div. FF, title XVII, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 3291, provided that:

"SEC. 1701. SHORT TITLE. "This title may be cited as the 'Sudan Claims Resolution Act'.

"SEC. 1702. SENSE OF CONGRESS. "It is the sense of Congress that- "(1) the United States should support Sudan's democratic transition, particularly in light of the country's dire economic situation, and this is a critical moment to address longstanding issues in the relationship between the United States and Sudan; "(2) as part of the process of restoring normal relations between Sudan and the United States, Congress supports efforts to provide meaningful compensation to individuals employed by or serving as contractors for the United States Government, as well as their family members, who personally have been awarded by a United States District Court a judgment for compensatory damages against Sudan; and"(3) the terrorism-related claims of victims and family members of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks must be preserved and protected.

"SEC. 1703. DEFINITIONS. "In this Act [probably means "this title"]: "(1) APPROPRIATE CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES.-The term 'appropriate congressional committees' means- "(A) the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate; and"(B) the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives."(2) CLAIMS AGREEMENT.-The term 'claims agreement' means the Claims Settlement Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of the Sudan, done at Washington, D.C., on October 30, 2020, including all annexes, appendices, side letters, related agreements, and instruments for implementation, including the escrow agreement among the Central Bank of Sudan, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and the escrow agent appointed thereby, as well as the escrow conditions release agreement, set out in an exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Sudan on October 21, 2020, and subsequently amended on December 19, 2020."(3) FOREIGN NATIONAL.-The term 'foreign national' means an individual who is not a citizen of the United States. "(4) SECRETARY.-The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of State."(5) STATE SPONSOR OF TERRORISM.-The term 'state sponsor of terrorism' means a country the government of which the Secretary has determined is a government that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism, for purposes of-"(A) section 1754(c)(1)(A)(i) of the Export Control Reform Act of 2018 ( 50 U.S.C. 4813(c)(1)(A)(i) ); "(B) section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 ( 22 U.S.C. 2371 ); "(C) section 40(d) of the Arms Export Control Act ( 22 U.S.C. 2780(d) ); or"(D) any other provision of law. "(6) SUDAN.-The term 'Sudan' means the Government of the Republic of the Sudan.

"SEC. 1704. RECEIPT OF ADEQUATE FUNDS; IMMUNITIES OF SUDAN. "(a) IMMUNITY.- "(1) IN GENERAL.-Subject to section 1706, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, upon submission of a certification described in paragraph (2)-"(A) Sudan, an agency or instrumentality of Sudan, and the property of Sudan or an agency or instrumentality of Sudan, shall not be subject to the exceptions to immunity from jurisdiction, liens, attachment, and execution under section 1605(a)(7) (as such section was in effect on January 27, 2008) or section 1605A or 1610 (insofar as section 1610 relates to a judgment under such section 1605(a)(7) or 1605A) of title 28, United States Code;"(B) section 1605A(c) of title 28, United States Code, section 1083(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 ( Public Law 110-181; 28 U.S.C. 1605A note), section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 ( Public Law 104-208; 28 U.S.C. 1605 note), and any other private right of action relating to acts by a state sponsor of terrorism arising under Federal, State, or foreign law shall not apply with respect to claims against Sudan, or any of its agencies, instrumentalities, officials, employees, or agents in any action in a Federal or State court; and "(C) any attachment, decree, lien, execution, garnishment, or other judicial process brought against property of Sudan, or property of any agency, instrumentality, official, employee, or agent of Sudan, in connection with an action that is precluded by subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be void."(2) CERTIFICATION.-A certification described in this paragraph is a certification by the Secretary to the appropriate congressional committees stating that- "(A) the August 12, 1993, designation of Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism has been formally rescinded; "(B) Sudan has made final payments with respect to the private settlement of the claims of victims of the U.S.S. Cole attack; and"(C) the United States Government has received funds pursuant to the claims agreement that are sufficient to ensure- "(i) payment of the agreed private settlement amount for the death of a citizen of the United States who was an employee of the United States Agency for International Development in Sudan on January 1, 2008; "(ii) meaningful compensation for claims of citizens of the United States (other than individuals described in section 1707(a)(1)) for wrongful death or physical injury in cases arising out of the August 7, 1998, bombings of the United States embassies located in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and"(iii) funds for compensation through a fair process to address compensation for terrorism-related claims of foreign nationals for wrongful death or physical injury arising out of the events referred to in clause (ii)."(b) SCOPE.-Subject to section 1706, subsection (a) of this section shall apply to all conduct and any event occurring before the date of the certification described in subsection (a)(2), regardless of whether, or the extent to which, application of that subsection affects any action filed before, on, or after that date."(c) AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY.-The certification by the Secretary referred to in subsection (a)(2) may not be delegated and may not be subject to judicial review.

"SEC. 1705. REAUTHORIZATION OF AND MODIFICATIONS TO UNITED STATES VICTIMS OF STATE SPONSORED TERRORISM FUND. [Amended section 20144 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement.]

"SEC. 1706. PRESERVATION OF CERTAIN PENDING INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM CLAIMS AGAINST SUDAN."(a) FINDINGS.-Congress makes the following findings: "(1) It is the long-standing policy of the United States that civil lawsuits against those who support, aid and abet, and provide material support for international terrorism serve the national security interests of the United States by deterring the sponsorship of terrorism and by advancing interests of justice, transparency, and accountability. "(2) Neither the claims agreement, nor any other aspect of the effort to normalize relations with Sudan- "(A) resolved claims against Sudan involving victims and family members of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; or "(B) otherwise advanced the interests of the victims and family members of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. "(3) The claims referenced in paragraph (2)(A) remain pending in the multidistrict proceeding 03-MDL-1570 in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, and subsection (c) preserves and protects those claims. "(b) SENSE OF CONGRESS.-It is the sense of Congress that the executive branch should not file a Statement of Interest or any other submission, or intervene in any other way, in the multidistrict proceeding 03-MDL-1570, in connection to the rescission of the designation of Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism or the restoration of Sudan's immunities from jurisdiction and execution in conformity with this Act [probably means "this title"], if such action would disadvantage terrorism victims."(c) IN GENERAL.-Nothing in this Act [probably means "this title"] shall apply to, be construed to apply to, or otherwise affect-"(1) any claim in any of the proceedings comprising the multidistrict proceeding 03-MDL-1570 in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York brought by any person who, as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], has a claim pending against Sudan (including as a member of a class certified under Rule 23 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or as a putative member of such a class pending certification); or"(2) the enforcement of any judgment in favor of such person entered in such proceeding."(d) APPLICABLE LAW.-Proceedings described in subsection (c) shall be governed by applicable law in effect before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], including-"(1) chapter 97 of title 28, United States Code (commonly known as the 'Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976'), including 28 U.S.C. 1605A note [sic];"(2) section 201 [probably means section 201(a), (b), (d)] of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act of 2002 ( Public Law 107-297; 28 U.S.C. 1610 note), with respect to any asset that, on or after the date of enactment of this Act, is designated as a blocked asset (as defined in subsection (d)(2) of that section); "(3) rules governing the rights of parties to amend pleadings; and"(4) other relevant provisions of law."(e) RULE OF CONSTRUCTION.-Nothing in this section shall alter, impact the interpretation of, or otherwise affect- "(1) any section of chapter 97 of title 28, United States Code; or"(2) any other provision of law.

"SEC. 1707. COMPENSATION FOR CERTAIN NATURALIZED UNITED STATES CITIZENS AND FOREIGN NATIONALS. "(a) COMPENSATION.- "(1) IN GENERAL.-There is authorized to be appropriated $150,000,000 for payment of compensation, notwithstanding any other provision of law, to any individual who-"(A) has been awarded a judgment in any of the cases set forth in section (c) of the Annex to the claims agreement; and"(B) is- "(i) a United States employee or contractor injured in connection with the bombings of the United States embassies located in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who became a United States citizen after August 7, 1998, and before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020];"(ii) a family member- "(I) of a United States employee or contractor injured in connection with the bombings of the United States embassies located in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and "(II) who is a United States citizen as of the date of the enactment of this Act; or"(iii) a family member- "(I) of a foreign national United States employee or contractor killed during those bombings; and "(II) who is a United States citizen as of the date of the enactment of this Act."(2) PAYMENTS.-With the requirement of achieving parity in compensation between individuals who became United States citizens after August 7, 1998, and individuals who were United States citizens on or before August 7, 1998, payment of compensation under paragraph (1) to-"(A) an individual described in paragraph (1)(B)(i) shall be based on the same standards used to determine the compensation for an employee or contractor injured in connection with the bombings described in that paragraph who was a United States citizen on or before August 7, 1998;"(B) an individual described in paragraph (1)(B)(ii) shall be on an equal basis to compensation provided to a family member of an individual described in subparagraph (A); and "(C) an individual described in paragraph (1)(B)(iii) shall be on an equal, or, where applicable, a pro rata basis to compensation provided to a family member of a United States employee or contractor who was a United States citizen killed during such bombings."(b) DISTRIBUTION AND REQUIREMENTS.-"(1) DISTRIBUTION.-The Secretary shall distribute payments from funds made available to carry out subsection (a)(1) to individuals described in that subsection. "(2) AUTHORIZATION LETTER.-Not later than December 31, 2021, the Secretary shall send a letter to each individual who will receive payment under paragraph (1) informing the individual of the amount of compensation the individual will receive pending the execution of any writings under paragraph (3), and the standards used to determine compensation under subsection (a)(2), taking into account the individual's final judgment amount."(3) REQUIREMENT BEFORE DISTRIBUTION.-Before making a payment to an individual under paragraph (1), and after the delivery of the authorization letter under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall require the individual to execute a writing that includes a waiver and release of all the individual's rights to assert claims for compensatory or other relief in any form or to enforce any judgment against Sudan in connection with, and any claims against the United States related to, any claim, suit, or action specified in Article II of the claims agreement."(c) FOREIGN NATIONALS.-Notwithstanding any other provision of law or the claims agreement-"(1) individuals described in subsection (a)(1) are not eligible to receive any compensation as provided by Sudan pursuant to Article III of the claims agreement; and "(2) the funds provided by Sudan for distribution of compensation to such individuals pursuant to the Annex of the claims agreement shall be redistributed-"(A) among all other individuals eligible for compensation under section (c) of the Annex to the claims agreement consistent with the principles set out in that Annex; or "(B) if Sudan and the foreign nationals eligible for compensation reach a private settlement, then pursuant to the terms of that settlement."(d) DEPARTMENT OF STATE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.-"(1) INITIAL REPORT.-Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 27, 2020], the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes a detailed description of the plan of the Department of State for the distribution of payments to each category of individual described in subsection (a)(1), including how the Department is arriving at compensation levels for each individual and the amount of compensation each such individual will receive from funds made available to carry out that subsection. "(2) UPDATED REPORT.-Not later than December 31, 2021, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report describing-"(A) whether the distribution plan described in paragraph (1) was carried out; and"(B) whether compensation levels were provided as described in the report required by paragraph (1)."(e) COMPTROLLER GENERAL REPORT.-Not later than December 31, 2022, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report assessing the implementation of this section by the Department of State, including whether- "(1) all distributions were made in accordance with the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c); and"(2) all individuals described in subsection (a)(1) received compensation from amounts made available to carry out that subsection in the manner described in subsection (a)(2).

"SEC. 1708. TREATY AND EXECUTIVE AGREEMENT PRACTICE. "(a) FINDINGS.-Congress makes the following findings: "(1) Congress and the executive branch share responsibility for the foreign relations of the United States pursuant to Article I and Article II of the Constitution of the United States."(2) All legislative powers of the Federal Government, including on matters of foreign relations, are vested in the Congress of the United States pursuant to section 1 of Article I of the Constitution."(3) The executive branch may not direct Congress to take any action, nor may it convey any legislative or other power assigned to Congress under the Constitution to any entity, domestic or foreign."(4) The original escrow release conditions agreement prescribed specific legislative text and purported both to require enactment of such text and provide a veto to Sudan over exceptions to that text."(5) Congress rejected the approach described in paragraph (4)."(6) The executive branch and Sudan subsequently amended the escrow release conditions agreement to eliminate the specific legislative text as well as the purported requirement for enactment and the purported veto over exceptions to that text."(b) AMENDMENT TO CASE-ZABLOCKI ACT.-[Amended section 112b of Title 1, General Provisions.]"

LIBYA CLAIMS RESOLUTION Pub. L. 110-301, 122 Stat. 2999, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE."This Act may be cited as the 'Libyan Claims Resolution Act'.

"SEC. 2. DEFINITIONS."In this Act- "(1) the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives;"(2) the term 'claims agreement' means an international agreement between the United States and Libya, binding under international law, that provides for the settlement of terrorism-related claims of nationals of the United States against Libya through fair compensation;"(3) the term 'national of the United States' has the meaning given that term in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22) );"(4) the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of State; and"(5) the term 'state sponsor of terrorism' means a country the government of which the Secretary has determined, for purposes of [former] section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 U.S.C. App. 2405(j)) [former 50 U.S.C. 4605(j) ], section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 ( 22 U.S.C. 2371 ), section 40 of the Arms Export Control Act ( 22 U.S.C. 2780 ), or any other provision of law, is a government that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism.

"SEC. 3. SENSE OF CONGRESS."Congress supports the President in his efforts to provide fair compensation to all nationals of the United States who have terrorism-related claims against Libya through a comprehensive settlement of claims by such nationals against Libya pursuant to an international agreement between the United States and Libya as a part of the process of restoring normal relations between Libya and the United States.

"SEC. 4. ENTITY TO ASSIST IN IMPLEMENTATION OF CLAIMS AGREEMENT."(a) DESIGNATION OF ENTITY.-"(1) DESIGNATION.-The Secretary, by publication in the Federal Register, may, after consultation with the appropriate congressional committees, designate 1 or more entities to assist in providing compensation to nationals of the United States, pursuant to a claims agreement."(2) AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY.-The designation of an entity under paragraph (1) is within the sole discretion of the Secretary, and may not be delegated. The designation shall not be subject to judicial review."(b) IMMUNITY.- "(1) PROPERTY.-"(A) IN GENERAL.-Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Secretary designates any entity under subsection (a)(1), any property described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall be immune from attachment or any other judicial process. Such immunity shall be in addition to any other applicable immunity."(B) PROPERTY DESCRIBED.-The property described in this subparagraph is any property that-"(i) relates to the claims agreement; and "(ii) for the purpose of implementing the claims agreement, is- "(I) held by an entity designated by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1); "(II) transferred to the entity; or "(III) transferred from the entity. "(2) OTHER ACTS.-An entity designated by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1), and any person acting through or on behalf of such entity, shall not be liable in any Federal or State court for any action taken to implement a claims agreement."(c) NONAPPLICABILITY OF THE GOVERNMENT CORPORATION CONTROL ACT.-An entity designated by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1) shall not be subject to chapter 91 of title 31, United States Code (commonly known as the 'Government Corporation Control Act').

"SEC. 5. RECEIPT OF ADEQUATE FUNDS; IMMUNITIES OF LIBYA. "(a) IMMUNITY.-"(1) IN GENERAL.-Notwithstanding any other provision of law, upon submission of a certification described in paragraph (2)-"(A) Libya, an agency or instrumentality of Libya, and the property of Libya or an agency or instrumentality of Libya, shall not be subject to the exceptions to immunity from jurisdiction, liens, attachment, and execution contained in section 1605A, [former] 1605(a)(7), or 1610 (insofar as section 1610 relates to a judgment under such section 1605A or [former] 1605(a)(7)) of title 28, United States Code;"(B) section 1605A(c) of title 28, United States Code, section 1083(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 ( Public Law 110-181; 122 Stat. 342; 28 U.S.C. 1605A note), section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 [ Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, §101(c) ] ( 28 U.S.C. 1605 note), and any other private right of action relating to acts by a state sponsor of terrorism arising under Federal, State, or foreign law shall not apply with respect to claims against Libya, or any of its agencies, instrumentalities, officials, employees, or agents in any action in a Federal or State court; and "(C) any attachment, decree, lien, execution, garnishment, or other judicial process brought against property of Libya, or property of any agency, instrumentality, official, employee, or agent of Libya, in connection with an action that would be precluded by subparagraph (A) or (B) shall be void."(2) CERTIFICATION.-A certification described in this paragraph is a certification-"(A) by the Secretary to the appropriate congressional committees; and"(B) stating that the United States Government has received funds pursuant to the claims agreement that are sufficient to ensure-"(i) payment of the settlements referred to in section 654(b) of division J of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008 ( Public Law 110-161; 121 Stat. 2342); and "(ii) fair compensation of claims of nationals of the United States for wrongful death or physical injury in cases pending on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 4, 2008] against Libya arising under section 1605A of title 28, United States Code (including any action brought under [former] section 1605(a)(7) of title 28, United States Code, or section 589 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1997 ( 28 U.S.C. 1605 note), that has been given effect as if the action had originally been filed under [section] 1605A(c) of title 28, United States Code, pursuant to section 1083(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 ( Public Law 110-181; 122 Stat. 342; 28 U.S.C. 1605A note)). "(b) TEMPORAL SCOPE.-Subsection (a) shall apply only with respect to any conduct or event occurring before June 30, 2006, regardless of whether, or the extent to which, application of that subsection affects any action filed before, on, or after that date."(c) AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY.-The certification by the Secretary referred to in subsection (a)(2) may not be delegated, and shall not be subject to judicial review."

APPLICABILITY TO IRAQ Pub. L. 110-181, div. A, title X, §1083(d), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 343, provided that:"(1) APPLICABILITY.-The President may waive any provision of this section [enacting this section and amending sections 1605, 1607 and 1610 of this title and section 20104 of Title 34, Crime Control and Law Enforcement] with respect to Iraq, insofar as that provision may, in the President's determination, affect Iraq or any agency or instrumentality thereof, if the President determines that-"(A) the waiver is in the national security interest of the United States;"(B) the waiver will promote the reconstruction of, the consolidation of democracy in, and the relations of the United States with, Iraq; and "(C) Iraq continues to be a reliable ally of the United States and partner in combating acts of international terrorism."(2) TEMPORAL SCOPE.-The authority under paragraph (1) shall apply- "(A) with respect to any conduct or event occurring before or on the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 28, 2008];"(B) with respect to any conduct or event occurring before or on the date of the exercise of that authority; and"(C) regardless of whether, or the extent to which, the exercise of that authority affects any action filed before, on, or after the date of the exercise of that authority or of the enactment of this Act."(3) NOTIFICATION TO CONGRESS.-A waiver by the President under paragraph (1) shall cease to be effective 30 days after it is made unless the President has notified Congress in writing of the basis for the waiver as determined by the President under paragraph (1)."(4) SENSE OF CONGRESS.-It is the sense of the Congress that the President, acting through the Secretary of State, should work with the Government of Iraq on a state-to-state basis to ensure compensation for any meritorious claims based on terrorist acts committed by the Saddam Hussein regime against individuals who were United States nationals or members of the United States Armed Forces at the time of those terrorist acts and whose claims cannot be addressed in courts in the United States due to the exercise of the waiver authority under paragraph (1)."

EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS

EX. ORD. NO. 13477. SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS AGAINST LIBYAEx. Ord. No. 13477, Oct. 31, 2008, 73 F.R. 65965, provided:By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and pursuant to the August 14, 2008, claims settlement agreement between the United States of America and Libya (Claims Settlement Agreement), and in recognition of the October 31, 2008, certification of the Secretary of State, pursuant to section 5(a)(2) of the Libyan Claims Resolution Act ( Public Law 110-301), and in order to continue the process of normalizing relations between the United States and Libya, it is hereby ordered as follows:SECTION 1. All claims within the terms of Article I of the Claims Settlement Agreement (Article I) are settled. (a) Claims of United States nationals within the terms of Article I are espoused by the United States and are settled according to the terms of the Claims Settlement Agreement.(i) No United States national may assert or maintain any claim within the terms of Article I in any forum, domestic or foreign, except under the procedures provided for by the Secretary of State.(ii) Any pending suit in any court, domestic or foreign, by United States nationals (including any suit with a judgment that is still subject to appeal or other forms of direct judicial review) coming within the terms of Article I shall be terminated.(iii) The Secretary of State shall provide for procedures governing applications by United States nationals with claims within the terms of Article I for compensation for those claims. (iv) The Attorney General shall enforce this subsection through all appropriate means, which may include seeking the dismissal, with prejudice, of any claim of a United States national within the terms of Article I pending or filed in any forum, domestic or foreign.(b) Claims of foreign nationals within the terms of Article I are settled according to the terms of the Claims Settlement Agreement.(i) No foreign national may assert or maintain any claim coming within the terms of Article I in any court in the United States.(ii) Any pending suit in any court in the United States by foreign nationals (including any suit with a judgment that is still subject to appeal or other forms of direct judicial review) coming within the terms of Article I shall be terminated. (iii) Neither the dismissal of the lawsuit, nor anything in this order, shall affect the ability of any foreign national to pursue other available remedies for claims coming within the terms of Article I in foreign courts or through the efforts of foreign governments.(iv) The Attorney General shall enforce this subsection through all appropriate means, which may include seeking the dismissal, with prejudice, of any claim of a foreign national within the terms of Article I pending or filed in any court in the United States. SEC. 2. For purposes of this order:(a) The term "United States national" has the same meaning as "national of the United States" in section 101(a)(22) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1101(a)(22) ), but also includes any entity organized under the laws of the United States or any jurisdiction within the United States (including foreign branches). (b) The term "foreign national" means any person other than a United States national.(c) The term "person" means any individual or entity, including both natural and juridical persons.(d) The term "entity" means a partnership, association, trust, joint venture, corporation, group, subgroup, or other organization.SEC. 3. This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, instrumentalities, or entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.George W. Bush.

WAIVER OF SECTION 1083 OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2008Determination of President of the United States, No. 2008-9, Jan. 28, 2008, 73 F.R. 6571, provided:Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, and section 1083(d) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (the "Act"), I hereby determine that:* All provisions of section 1083 of the Act, if applied to Iraq or any agency or instrumentality thereof, may affect Iraq or its agencies or instrumentalities, by exposing Iraq or its agencies or instrumentalities to liability in United States courts and by entangling their assets in litigation.* The economic security and successful reconstruction of Iraq continue to be top national security priorities of the United States. Section 1083 of the Act threatens those key priorities. If permitted to apply to Iraq, section 1083 would risk the entanglement of substantial Iraqi assets in litigation in the United States-including those of the Development Fund for Iraq, the Central Bank of Iraq, and commercial entities in the United States in which Iraq has an interest. Section 1083 also would expose Iraq to new liability of at least several billion dollars by undoing judgments favorable to Iraq, by foreclosing available defenses on which Iraq is relying in pending litigation, and by creating a new Federal cause of action backed by the prospect of punitive damages to support claims that may previously have been foreclosed. If permitted to apply to Iraq, section 1083 would have a significant financial impact on Iraq and would result in the redirection of financial resources from the continued reconstruction of Iraq and the harming of Iraq's stability, contrary to the interests of the United States.* A waiver of all provisions of section 1083 with respect to Iraq and any agency or instrumentality of Iraq is therefore in the national security interest of the United States and will promote the reconstruction of, the consolidation of democracy in, and the relations of the United States with, Iraq. * Iraq continues to be a reliable ally of the United States and a partner in combating acts of international terrorism. The November 26, 2007, Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America confirmed the commitment of the United States and Iraq to build an enduring relationship in the political, diplomatic, economic, and security arenas and to work together to combat all terrorist groups, including al-Qaida. Accordingly, I hereby waive all provisions of section 1083 of the Act with respect to Iraq and any agency or instrumentality thereof. You are authorized and directed to notify the Congress of this determination and waiver and the accompanying memorandum of justification [not set out in the Code], incorporated by reference herein, and to arrange for their publication in the Federal Register.George W. Bush.