any activity in the United States of such foreign state, or of any carrier, that is associated with the temporary exhibition or display of such work shall not be considered to be commercial activity by such foreign state for purposes of subsection (a)(3).
28 U.S.C. § 1605
REFERENCES IN TEXTRules 12(b)(6) and 56 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (g)(4), are set out in the Appendix to this title.
AMENDMENTS2016-Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114-222 inserted "or section 1605B" after "but for section 1605A".Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114-319 added subsec. (h).2008-Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 110-181, §1083(b)(1)(A), struck out par. (7) which provided for lack of jurisdictional immunity in certain cases in which money damages were sought against a foreign state for personal injury or death caused by an act of torture, extrajudicial killing, aircraft sabotage, hostage taking, or the provision of material support or resources for such an act. Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 110-181, §1083(b)(1)(B), struck out subsecs. (e) and (f) which defined "torture", "extrajudicial killing", "hostage taking", and "aircraft sabotage" and provided for a 10-year statute of limitations for actions brought under former subsec. (a)(7) of this section.Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 110-181, §1083(b)(1)(C), substituted "but for section 1605A" for "but for subsection (a)(7)".2006-Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109-304 substituted "sectionof title 46" and "chapter 313 of title 46" for "the Ship Mortgage Act, 1920 ( and following)" and "that Act", respectively.2002-Subsec. (a)(7)(A). Pub. L. 107-117 amended Pub. L. 107-77. See 2001 Amendment note below. 2001-Subsec. (a)(7)(A). Pub. L. 107-77 as amended by Pub. L. 107-117 inserted before semicolon "or the act is related to Case Number 1:00CV03110(EGS) in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia".1997-Subsec. (a)(7)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105-11 substituted "neither the claimant nor the victim was" for "the claimant or victim was not".1996-Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 104-132, §221(a)(1), added par. (7).Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 104-132, §221(a)(2), added subsecs. (e) to (g). 1990-Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101-650 substituted "state" for "State" after "foreign".1988-Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 100-669 added par. (6).Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100-702, §1(3), struck out at end "Whenever notice is delivered under subsection (b)(1) of this section, the maritime lien shall thereafter be deemed to be an in personam claim against the foreign state which at that time owns the vessel or cargo involved: Provided, That a court may not award judgment against the foreign state in an amount greater than the value of the vessel or cargo upon which the maritime lien arose, such value to be determined as of the time notice is served under subsection (b)(1) of this section." Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100-640, §1(1), substituted "and if the vessel or cargo is arrested pursuant to process obtained on behalf of the party bringing the suit, the service of process of arrest shall be deemed to constitute valid delivery of such notice, but the party bringing the suit shall be liable for any damages sustained by the foreign state as a result of the arrest if the party bringing the suit had actual or constructive knowledge that the vessel or cargo of a foreign state was involved" for "but such notice shall not be deemed to have been delivered, nor may it thereafter be delivered, if the vessel or cargo is arrested pursuant to process obtained on behalf of the party bringing the suit-unless the party was unaware that the vessel or cargo of a foreign state was involved, in which event the service of process of arrest shall be deemed to constitute valid delivery of such notice". Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100-640, §1(2), substituted "paragraph (1) of this subsection" for "subsection (b)(1) of this section". Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100-702, §1(3), added subsecs. (c) and (d).
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2016 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 114-319, §2(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1619, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any civil action commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 2016]."Amendment by Pub. L. 114-222 applicable to any civil action pending on, or commenced on or after, Sept. 28, 2016, and arising out of an injury to a person, property, or business on or after Sept. 11, 2001, see section 7 of Pub. L. 114-222 set out as a note under sectionof Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2008 AMENDMENTFor applicability of amendments by Pub. L. 110-181 to pending cases, see section 1083(c) of Pub. L. 110-181 set out as an Effective Date note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1997 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 105-11 provided that the amendment made by that Act was effective with respect to any cause of action arising before, on, or after Apr. 25, 1997.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 104-132, title II, §221(c), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1243, provided that: "The amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle B (§221) of title II of Pub. L. 104-132 amending this section and sectionof this title] shall apply to any cause of action arising before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 24, 1996]."
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENTPub. L. 100-640, §3, Nov. 9, 1988, 102 Stat. 3334, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [amending this section and sectionof this title] shall apply to actions commenced on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 9, 1988]."
EFFECTIVE DATESection effective 90 days after Oct. 21, 1976, see section 8 of Pub. L. 94-583 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
NOTIFICATION Pub. L. 114-319, §3, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1620, provided that: "The Secretary of State shall ensure that foreign states that apply for immunity under Public Law 89-259 () are appropriately notified of the text of this Act [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section of this title]."
CIVIL LIABILITY FOR ACTS OF STATE SPONSORED TERRORISM Pub. L. 104-208, div. A, title I, §101(c) [title V, §589], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-121, 3009-172, provided that:"(a) an [sic] official, employee, or agent of a foreign state designated as a state sponsor of terrorism designated [sic] under [former] section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 [former] while acting within the scope of his or her office, employment, or agency shall be liable to a United States national or the national's legal representative for personal injury or death caused by acts of that official, employee, or agent for which the courts of the United States may maintain jurisdiction under [former] section of title 28, United States Code, for money damages which may include economic damages, solatium, pain, and suffering, and punitive damages if the acts were among those described in [former] section 1605(a)(7)."(b) Provisions related to statute of limitations and limitations on discovery that would apply to an action brought under shall also apply to actions brought under this section. No action shall be maintained under this action [sic] if an official, employee, or agent of the United States, while acting within the scope of his or her office, employment, or agency would not be liable for such acts if carried out within the United States."