Miss. R. Civ. P. 65

As amended through June 18, 2020
Rule 65 - Injunctions
(a) Preliminary Injunction.
(1) Notice. No preliminary injunction shall be issued without notice to the adverse party.
(2) Consolidation of Hearing With Trial on Merits. Before or after the commencement of the hearing on application for a preliminary injunction, the court may order the trial of the action on the merits to be advanced and consolidated with the hearing of the application. Even when this consolidation is not ordered, any evidence received upon an application for a preliminary injunction which would be admissible upon the trial on the merits becomes part of the record on the trial and need not be repeated upon a trial. This subdivision (a)(2) shall be so construed and applied as to save to the parties any rights they may have to trial by jury.
(b) Temporary Restraining Order; Notice; Hearing; Duration. A temporary restraining order may be granted, without notice to the adverse party or his attorney if (1) it clearly appears from specific facts shown by affidavit or by the verified complaint that immediate and irreparable injury, loss or damage will result to the applicant before the adverse party or his attorney can be heard in opposition, and (2) the applicant's attorney certifies to the court in writing the efforts, if any, which have been made to give the notice and reasons supporting his claim that notice should not be required. Every temporary restraining order granted without notice shall be endorsed with the date and hour of issuance; shall be filed forthwith in the clerk's office and entered of record; shall define the injury and state why it is irreparable and why the order was granted without notice; and shall expire by its terms within such time after entry, not to exceed ten days, as the court fixes (except in domestic relations cases, when the ten-day limitation shall not apply), unless within the time so fixed the order for good cause shown is extended for a like period or unless the party against whom the order is directed consents that it may be extended for a longer period. The reasons for the extension shall be stated in the order.

In case a temporary restraining order is granted without notice, the motion for a preliminary injunction shall be set down for hearing at the earliest possible time and take precedence over all matters except older matters of the same character. When the motion comes on for hearing the party who obtained the temporary restraining order shall proceed with the application for a preliminary injunction and, if he does not do so, the court shall dissolve the temporary restraining order.

On two days' notice to the party who obtained the temporary restraining order without notice or on such shorter notice to that party as the court may prescribe, the adverse party may appear and move its dissolution or modification and in that event the court shall proceed to hear and determine such motion as expeditiously as the ends of justice require.

(c) Security. No restraining order or preliminary injunction shall issue except upon the giving of security by the applicant, in such sum as the court deems proper, for the payment of such costs, damages, and reasonable attorney's fees as may be incurred or suffered by any party who is found to have been wrongfully enjoined or restrained; provided, however, no such security shall be required of the State of Mississippi or of an officer or agency thereof, and provided further, in the discretion of the court, security may not be required in domestic relations actions. The provisions of Rule 65.1 apply to a surety upon a bond or undertaking under this rule.
(d) Form and Scope of Injunction or Restraining Order.
(1) Every order granting a restraining order shall describe in reasonable detail and not by reference to the complaint or other document the act or acts sought to be restrained; it is binding only upon the parties to the action, their officers, agents, servants, employees, and attorneys, and upon those persons in active concert or participation with them who receive actual notice of the order by personal service or otherwise.
(2) Every order granting an injunction shall set forth the reasons for its issuance; shall be specific in terms; shall describe in reasonable detail and not by reference to the complaint or other document the act or acts sought to be restrained; and is binding only upon the parties to the action, their officers, agents, servants, employees, and attorneys, and upon those persons in active concert or participation with them who receive actual notice of the order by personal service or otherwise.
(e) Jurisdiction Unaffected. Injunctive powers heretofore vested in the circuit and chancery courts remain unchanged by this rule.

Miss. R. Civ. P. 65

Advisory Committee Notes

Rule 65 authorizes parties to seek temporary restraining orders (TROs) and preliminary injunctions in civil cases in which permanent injunctive relief or other relief is being sought. A party may move for, and in appropriate circumstances, obtain a TRO and/or a preliminary injunction before the merits of the case are resolved.

Generally, the purpose of a TRO is to provide temporary short term relief until further action can be taken in the case. To obtain a TRO without notice to the adverse party, the party seeking relief must show, by affidavit or verified complaint, that it will suffer immediate and irreparable injury before the adverse party can be heard in opposition. In addition, the attorney for the party seeking the TRO must certify to the court in writing the efforts made to give the adverse party notice and the reasons why the notice to the adverse party should not be required. If a TRO is granted without notice, it must contain the information required by Rule 65(b) and it must expire by its terms, not more than 10 days after its entry, except in domestic relations cases. Before its expiration, a TRO may be extended by the court for a like period if the restrained party consents or the court extends the TRO for good cause shown.

The purpose of a preliminary injunction is to provide injunctive relief until the merits of the case are resolved. Preliminary injunctions cannot be granted without notice. A party moving for preliminary injunctive relief pursuant to Rule 65(a) must demonstrate that "(i) there exists a substantial likelihood that the [movant] will prevail on the merits; (ii) the injunction is necessary to prevent irreparable harm; (iii) the threatened injury to the [movant] outweighs the harm an injunction might do to the [opposing party]; and (iv) granting a preliminary injunction is consistent with the public interest." See Littleton v. McAdams, 60 So. 3d 169, 171 (Miss. 2011). Motions for preliminary injunctions are within the trial court's discretion. See City of Durant v. Humphreys County Mem'l Hosp., 587 So. 2d 244, 250 (Miss. 1991).

Rule 65(c) requires that proper security be given by the movant obtaining a TRO or preliminary injunction so that proper payment for costs, damages and reasonable attorneys' fees may be made to the restrained party in the event it is determined that such party was wrongfully enjoined or restrained. Such security is not required from the State of Mississippi and may be waived in domestic relations cases. Mississippi Code Annotated § 11-13-37 provides an independent statutory basis for awarding damages and attorneys' fees upon dissolution of an injunction.

County courts have some authority to issue injunctive relief. Mississippi Code Annotated § 9-9-21 provides that county courts "shall have jurisdiction concurrent with the circuit and chancery courts in all matters of law and equity wherein the amount of value of the things in controversy shall not exceeds.the sum of .$200,000.00." Mississippi Code Annotated § 99-9-23 provides that county courts "shall have the power to order the issuances of writs of certiorari, supersedeas, attachments, and other remedial writs in all cases pending in, or within the jurisdiction of, [the county court]." Section 9-9-23, however, further provides that county courts "shall not have original power to issue writs of injunction, or other remedial writs of equity or in law except in those cases hereinabove specified as being within [the court's] jurisdiction." The statutes have been interpreted as authorizing county courts to issue injunctions in cases falling within the concurrent jurisdiction of the chancery and county court. See, e.g., Lee v. Coahoma Opportunities, Inc., 485 So. 2d 293, 294 (Miss. 1986) (citing Miss. Code Ann. § 9-9-21(1)) ("A claim for specific performance of a contract of employment plus attendant injunctive relief is well within the jurisdiction of the county court on its equity side"); Swan v. Hill, 855 So. 2d 459, 462-63 (Miss. Ct. App. 2003) (holding that the county court had jurisdiction to issue injunctive relief in a case involving property rights).

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