The following shall be nationals and citizens of the United States at birth:
8 U.S.C. § 1401
CONSTITUTIONALITYFor information regarding the constitutionality of certain provisions of this section, see the Table of Laws Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court on the Constitution Annotated website, constitution.congress.gov.
AMENDMENTS1994-Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103-416 added subsec. (h).1986-Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99-653 substituted "five years, at least two" for "ten years, at least five".1978-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95-432, §3, struck out "(a)" before "The following" and redesignated pars. (1) to (7) as (a) to (g), respectively.Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95-432, §1, struck out subsec. (b) which provided that any person who was a national or citizen of the United States under subsec. (a)(7) lose his nationality or citizenship unless he be continuously physically present in the United States for a period of not less than two years between the ages of 14 and 28 or that the alien parent be naturalized while the child was under 18 years of age and the child began permanent residence in the United States while under 18 years of age and that absence from the United States of less than 60 days not break the continuity of presence.Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95-432, §1, struck out subsec. (c) which provided that former subsec. (b) apply to persons born abroad subsequent to May 24, 1934, except that this not be construed to alter the citizenship of any person born abroad subsequent to May 24, 1934 who, prior to the effective date of this chapter, had taken up residence in the United States before attaining 16 years of age, and thereafter, whether before or after the effective date of this chapter, complied with the residence requirements of section 201(g) and (h) of the Nationality Act of 1940.Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95-432, §1, struck out subsec. (d) which provided that nothing in former subsec. (b) be construed to alter the citizenship of any person who came into the United States prior to Oct. 27, 1972, and who, whether before or after Oct. 27, 1972, immediately following such coming complied with the physical presence requirements for retention of citizenship specified in former subsec. (b), prior to amendment of former subsec. (b) by Pub. L. 92-584.1972-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92-584, §1, substituted provisions that nationals and citizens of the United States under subsec. (a)(7), lose such status unless they are present continuously in the United States for two years between the ages of fourteen and twenty eight years, or the alien parent is naturalized while the child is under the age of eighteen years and the child begins to reside permanently in the United States while under the age of eighteen years, and that absence from the United States of less than sixty days will not break the continuity of presence, for provisions that such status would be lost unless the nationals and citizens come to the United States prior to attaining twenty three years and be present continuously in the United States for five years, and that such presence should be between the age of fourteen and twenty eight years.Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92-584, §3, added subsec. (d).1966-Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 89-770 authorized periods of employment with the United States Government or with an international organization by the citizen parent, or any periods during which the citizen parent is physically present abroad as the dependent unmarried son or daughter and a member of the household of a person (A) honorably serving with the Armed Forces of the United States, or (B) employed by the United States Government or an international organization, to be included in order to satisfy the physical presence requirement, and permitted the proviso to be applicable to persons born on or after December 24, 1952.
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 99-653, §23(d), as added by Pub. L. 100-525, §8(r), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619, provided that: "The amendment made by section 12 [amending this section] shall apply to persons born on or after November 14, 1986."
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1978 AMENDMENTPub. L. 95-432, §1, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1046, provided that the amendment made by section 1 is effective Oct. 10, 1978.
EFFECTIVE DATEChapter effective 180 days after June 27, 1952, see section 407 of act June 27, 1952, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.
WAIVER OF RETENTION REQUIREMENTS Pub. L. 103-416, title I, §101(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306, provided that: "Any provision of law (including section 301(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [ 8 U.S.C. 1401(b) ] (as in effect before October 10, 1978), and the provisos of section 201(g) of the Nationality Act of 1940 [former 8 U.S.C. 601(g) ]) that provided for a person's loss of citizenship or nationality if the person failed to come to, or reside or be physically present in, the United States shall not apply in the case of a person claiming United States citizenship based on such person's descent from an individual described in section 301(h) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as added by subsection (a))."
RETROACTIVE APPLICATION OF 1994 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 103-416, title I, §101(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306, provided that:"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the immigration and nationality laws of the United States shall be applied (to persons born before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994]) as though the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section], and subsection (b) [enacting provisions set out above], had been in effect as of the date of their birth, except that the retroactive application of the amendment and that subsection shall not affect the validity of citizenship of anyone who has obtained citizenship under section 1993 of the Revised Statutes [former 8 U.S.C. 6 ] (as in effect before the enactment of the Act of May 24, 1934 (48 Stat. 797))."(2) The retroactive application of the amendment made by subsection (a), and subsection (b), shall not confer citizenship on, or affect the validity of any denaturalization, deportation, or exclusion action against, any person who is or was excludable from the United States under section 212(a)(3)(E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act ( 8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(E) ) (or predecessor provision) or who was excluded from, or who would not have been eligible for admission to, the United States under the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 [former 50 U.S.C. App. 1951 et seq.] or under section 14 of the Refugee Relief Act of 1953 [former 50 U.S.C. App. 1971l]."
APPLICABILITY OF TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS Pub. L. 103-416, title I, §101(d), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306, as amended by Pub. L. 104-208, div. C, title VI, §671(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009-721, provided that: "This section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out above], the amendments made by this section, and any retroactive application of such amendments shall not effect the application of any provision of law relating to residence or physical presence in the United States for purposes of transmitting United States citizenship to any person whose claim is based on the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] or through whom such a claim is derived."
ADMISSION OF ALASKA AS STATEAlaska Statehood provisions as not conferring, terminating, or restoring United States nationality, see section 21 of Pub. L. 85-508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as a note preceding former section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.
- The term "Service" means the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice.
- The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
- The term "alien" means any person not a citizen or national of the United States.
- The term "national" means a person owing permanent allegiance to a state.
- The term "organization" means, but is not limited to, an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation or fund; and includes a group of persons, whether or not incorporated, permanently or temporarily associated together with joint action on any subject or subjects.
- The term "permanent" means a relationship of continuing or lasting nature, as distinguished from temporary, but a relationship may be permanent even though it is one that may be dissolved eventually at the instance either of the United States or of the individual, in accordance with law.
- The term "person" means an individual or an organization.
- The term "refugee" means (A) any person who is outside any country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, is outside any country in which such person last habitually resided, and who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of, that country because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, or (B) in such special circumstances as the President after appropriate consultation (as defined in section 1157(e) of this title) may specify, any person who is within the country of such person's nationality or, in the case of a person having no nationality, within the country in which such person is habitually residing, and who is persecuted or who has a well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. The term "refugee" does not include any person who ordered, incited, assisted, or otherwise participated in the persecution of any person on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. For purposes of determinations under this chapter, a person who has been forced to abort a pregnancy or to undergo involuntary sterilization, or who has been persecuted for failure or refusal to undergo such a procedure or for other resistance to a coercive population control program, shall be deemed to have been persecuted on account of political opinion, and a person who has a well founded fear that he or she will be forced to undergo such a procedure or subject to persecution for such failure, refusal, or resistance shall be deemed to have a well founded fear of persecution on account of political opinion.
- The term "residence" means the place of general abode; the place of general abode of a person means his principal, actual dwelling place in fact, without regard to intent.
- The terms "admission" and "admitted" mean, with respect to an alien, the lawful entry of the alien into the United States after inspection and authorization by an immigration officer.