Whenever, on the basis of any information available to the Administrator, the Administrator finds that any person has violated or is in violation of any requirement or prohibition of an applicable implementation plan or permit, the Administrator shall notify the person and the State in which the plan applies of such finding. At any time after the expiration of 30 days following the date on which such notice of a violation is issued, the Administrator may, without regard to the period of violation (subject to section of title 28)-
Whenever, on the basis of information available to the Administrator, the Administrator finds that violations of an applicable implementation plan or an approved permit program under subchapter V are so widespread that such violations appear to result from a failure of the State in which the plan or permit program applies to enforce the plan or permit program effectively, the Administrator shall so notify the State. In the case of a permit program, the notice shall be made in accordance with subchapter V. If the Administrator finds such failure extends beyond the 30th day after such notice (90 days in the case of such permit program), the Administrator shall give public notice of such finding. During the period beginning with such public notice and ending when such State satisfies the Administrator that it will enforce such plan or permit program (hereafter referred to in this section as "period of federally assumed enforcement"), the Administrator may enforce any requirement or prohibition of such plan or permit program with respect to any person by-
Except for a requirement or prohibition enforceable under the preceding provisions of this subsection, whenever, on the basis of any information available to the Administrator, the Administrator finds that any person has violated, or is in violation of, any other requirement or prohibition of this subchapter, section of this title, subchapter IV-A, subchapter V, or subchapter VI, including, but not limited to, a requirement or prohibition of any rule, plan, order, waiver, or permit promulgated, issued, or approved under those provisions or subchapters, or for the payment of any fee owed to the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II), the Administrator may-
An order issued under this subsection (other than an order relating to a violation of section person to whom it is issued has had an opportunity to confer with the Administrator concerning the alleged violation. A copy of any order issued under this subsection shall be sent to the State air pollution control agency of any State in which the violation occurs. Any order issued under this subsection shall state with reasonable specificity the nature of the violation and specify a time for compliance which the Administrator determines is reasonable, taking into account the seriousness of the violation and any good faith efforts to comply with applicable requirements. In any case in which an order under this subsection (or notice to a violator under paragraph (1)) is issued to a corporation, a copy of such order (or notice) shall be issued to appropriate corporate officers. An order issued under this subsection shall require the person to whom it was issued to comply with the requirement as expeditiously as practicable, but in no event longer than one year after the date the order was issued, and shall be nonrenewable. No order issued under this subsection shall prevent the State or the Administrator from assessing any penalties nor otherwise affect or limit the State's or the United States authority to enforce under other provisions of this chapter, nor affect any person's obligations to comply with any section of this chapter or with a term or condition of any permit or applicable implementation plan promulgated or approved under this chapter.of this title) shall not take effect until the
Whenever, on the basis of any available information, the Administrator finds that a State is not acting in compliance with any requirement or prohibition of the chapter relating to the construction of new sources or the modification of existing sources, the Administrator may-
Nothing in this subsection shall preclude the United States from commencing a criminal action under subsection (c) at any time for any such violation.
The Administrator shall, as appropriate, in the case of any person that is the owner or operator of an affected source, a major emitting facility, or a major stationary source, and may, in the case of any other person, commence a civil action for a permanent or temporary injunction, or to assess and recover a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 per day for each violation, or both, in any of the following instances:
Any action under this subsection may be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, or is occurring, or in which the defendant resides, or where the defendant's principal place of business is located, and such court shall have jurisdiction to restrain such violation, to require compliance, to assess such civil penalty, to collect any fees owed the United States under this chapter (other than subchapter II) and any noncompliance assessment and nonpayment penalty owed under section State air pollution control agency. In the case of any action brought by the Administrator under this subsection, the court may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to the party or parties against whom such action was brought if the court finds that such action was unreasonable.of this title, and to award any other appropriate relief. Notice of the commencement of such action shall be given to the appropriate
shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine pursuant to title 18 or by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, or both. If a conviction of any person under this paragraph is for a violation committed after a first conviction of such person under this paragraph, the maximum punishment shall be doubled with respect to both the fine and imprisonment.
except that in proving a defendant's possession of actual knowledge, circumstantial evidence may be used, including evidence that the defendant took affirmative steps to be shielded from relevant information.
The defendant may establish an affirmative defense under this subparagraph by a preponderance of the evidence.
The Administrator's authority under this paragraph shall be limited to matters where the total penalty sought does not exceed $200,000 and the first alleged date of violation occurred no more than 12 months prior to the initiation of the administrative action, except where the Administrator and the Attorney General jointly determine that a matter involving a larger penalty amount or longer period of violation is appropriate for administrative penalty action. Any such determination by the Administrator and the Attorney General shall not be subject to judicial review.
the Administrator shall request the Attorney General to bring a civil action in an appropriate district court to enforce the order or to recover the amount ordered or assessed (plus interest at rates established pursuant to section of title 26 from the date of the final order or decision or the date of the final judgment, as the case may be). In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of such order or assessment shall not be subject to review. Any person who fails to pay on a timely basis a civil penalty ordered or assessed under this section shall be required to pay, in addition to such penalty and interest, the United States enforcement expenses, including but not limited to attorneys fees and costs incurred by the United States for collection proceedings and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. Such nonpayment penalty shall be 10 percent of the aggregate amount of such person's outstanding penalties and nonpayment penalties accrued as of the beginning of such quarter.
The Administrator may pay an award, not to exceed $10,000, to any person who furnishes information or services which lead to a criminal conviction or a judicial or administrative civil penalty for any violation of this subchapter or subchapter III, IV-A, V, or VI of this chapter enforced under this section. Such payment is subject to available appropriations for such purposes as provided in annual appropriation Acts. Any officer,3 or employee of the United States or any State or local government who furnishes information or renders service in the performance of an official duty is ineligible for payment under this subsection. The Administrator may, by regulation, prescribe additional criteria for eligibility for such an award.
At least 30 days before a consent order or settlement agreement of any kind under this chapter to which the United States is a party (other than enforcement actions under this section, section Administrator shall provide a reasonable opportunity by notice in the Federal Register to persons who are not named as parties or intervenors to the action or matter to comment in writing. The Administrator or the Attorney General, as appropriate, shall promptly consider any such written comments and may withdraw or withhold his consent to the proposed order or agreement if the comments disclose facts or considerations which indicate that such consent is inappropriate, improper, inadequate, or inconsistent with the requirements of this chapter. Nothing in this subsection shall apply to civil or criminal penalties under this chapter.of this title, or subchapter II, whether or not involving civil or criminal penalties, or judgments subject to Department of Justice policy on public participation) is final or filed with a court, the
For purposes of the provisions of this section and section person who is senior management personnel or a corporate officer. Except in the case of knowing and willful violations, such term shall not include any person who is a stationary engineer or technician responsible for the operation, maintenance, repair, or monitoring of equipment and facilities and who often has supervisory and training duties but who is not senior management personnel or a corporate officer. Except in the case of knowing and willful violations, for purposes of subsection (c)(4) of this section, the term "a person" shall not include an employee who is carrying out his normal activities and who is not a part of senior management personnel or a corporate officer. Except in the case of knowing and willful violations, for purposes of paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (5) of subsection (c) of this section the term "a person" shall not include an employee who is carrying out his normal activities and who is acting under orders from the employer.of this title, the term "operator", as used in such provisions, shall include any
1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.
2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.
3 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.
42 U.S.C. § 7413
CODIFICATIONSection was formerly classified to section 1857c-8 of this title.
AMENDMENTS1990- Pub. L. 101-549 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (a), finding of violation, notice, compliance order, civil action, State failure to enforce plan, and construction or modification of major stationary sources; in subsec. (b), violations by owners or operators of major stationary sources; in subsec. (c), penalties; in subsec. (d), final compliance orders; and in subsec. (e), steel industry compliance extension. 1981-Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97-23 added subsec. (e).1977-Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 95-95, §111(a), added par. (5).Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95-95, §111(b), (c), substituted "shall, in the case of any person which is the owner or operator of a major stationary source, and may, in the case of any other person, commence a civil action for a permanent or temporary injunction, or to assess and recover a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 per day of violation, or both, whenever such person" for "may commence a civil action for appropriate relief, including a permanent or temporary injunction, whenever any person" in provisions preceding par. (1), inserted references to subsec. (d)(5) of this section, sections and of this title, and regulations under part in par. (3), inserted reference to subsec. (d) of this section in par. (4), added par. (5), and, in provisions following par. (5), authorized the commencement of civil actions to recover noncompliance penalties and nonpayment penalties under section of this title, expanded jurisdictional provisions to authorize actions in districts in which the violation occurred and to authorize the district court to restrain violations, to require compliance, to assess civil penalties, and to collect penalties under section of this title, enumerated factors to be taken into consideration in determining the amount of civil penalties, and authorized awarding of costs to the party or parties against whom the action was brought in cases where the court finds that the action was unreasonable.Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(10), (11), inserted "or" after "ozone);", and substituted "7624" for "7620", "conversion), section" for "conversion) section", and "orders), or" for "orders) or". Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95-95, §111(d)(1), (2), substituted "any order issued under section of this title or under subsection (a) or (d) of this section" for "any order issued by the Administrator under subsection (a)" in subpar. (B), struck out reference to section 119(g) (as in effect before the date of the enactment of Pub. L. 95-95) in subpar. (C), and added subpar. (D).Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(12), inserted "or" after "section,".Subsec. (c)(1)(D). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(13), substituted "1977 subsection" for "1977) subsection" and "penalties), or" for "penalties) or". Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 95-95, §111(d)(3), added par. (3).Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95-95, §112(a), added subsec. (d).Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(14), substituted "to any stationary source which is unable to comply with any requirement of an applicable implementation plan an order" for "an order for any stationary source" and "such requirement" for "any requirement of an applicable implementation plan".Subsec. (d)(1)(E). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(15), inserted provision relating to exemption under section 7420(a)(2)(B) or (C) of this title, provision relating to noncompliance penalties effective July 1, 1979, and reference to subsec. (b)(3) or (g) of section of this title. Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(16), inserted provisions relating to determinations by the Administrator of compliance with requirements of this chapter of State orders issued under this subsection.Subsec. (d)(4)(A). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(17), substituted "title) upon" for "title upon".Subsec. (d)(5)(A). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(18), substituted "an additional period for" for "an additional period of".Subsec. (d)(8). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(19), struck out reference to par. (3) of this subsection. Subsec. (d)(10). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(20), substituted "in effect" for "issued", "Federal" for "other", and "and no action under" for "or". Subsec. (d)(11). Pub. L. 95-190, §14(a)(21), substituted "and in effect" for "(and approved by the Administrator)". 1974-Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 93-319, §6(a)(1), inserted reference to section of this title (relating to energy-related authorities). Subsecs. (b)(3), (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 93-319, §6(a)(2), (3), inserted reference to section of this title. 1971-Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 92-157, §302(b), inserted "(A)" before "during" and ", or (B)" after "assumed enforcement".Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 92-157, §302(c), inserted "(i)" before "during" and ", or (ii)" after "assumed enforcement".
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1977 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95-95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95-95 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
PENDING ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95-95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95-95 see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95-95 set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section of this title.
MODIFICATION OR RESCISSION OF RULES, REGULATIONS, ORDERS, DETERMINATIONS, CONTRACTS, CERTIFICATIONS, AUTHORIZATIONS, DELEGATIONS, AND OTHER ACTIONSAll rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95-95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95-95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95-95 set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under sectionof this title.
TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS Federal Power Commission terminated and its functions, personnel, property, funds, etc., transferred to Secretary of Energy (except for certain functions transferred to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) by sections , , , , and of this title.
- The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of General Services.
- The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.1 See References in Text note below.
- The term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
- air pollutant
- The term "air pollutant" means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the particular purpose for which the term "air pollutant" is used.
- air pollution control agency
- The term "air pollution control agency" means any of the following:(1) A single State agency designated by the Governor of that State as the official State air pollution control agency for purposes of this chapter.(2) An agency established by two or more States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.(3) A city, county, or other local government health authority, or, in the case of any city, county, or other local government in which there is an agency other than the health authority charged with responsibility for enforcing ordinances or laws relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, such other agency.(4) An agency of two or more municipalities located in the same State or in different States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.(5) An agency of an Indian tribe.
- The term "owner" means, with respect to federally assisted housing, the entity or private person, including a cooperative or public housing agency, that has the legal right to lease or sublease dwelling units in such housing.
- The term "person" includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, State, municipality, political subdivision of a State, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof.