The Administrator shall establish a national research and development program for the prevention and control of air pollution and as part of such program shall-
In carrying out the provisions of the preceding subsection the Administrator is authorized to-
In carrying out the provisions of subsection (a), the Administrator shall provide training for, and make training grants to, personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications and make grants to such agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations for the purposes stated in subsection (a)(5). Reasonable fees may be charged for such training provided to persons other than personnel of air pollution control agencies but such training shall be provided to such personnel of air pollution control agencies without charge.
In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall conduct a program of research, testing, and development of methods for sampling, measurement, monitoring, analysis, and modeling of air pollutants. Such program shall include the following elements:
In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator, in cooperation, where appropriate, with the Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, the Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall conduct a research program to improve understanding of the short-term and long-term causes, effects, and trends of ecosystems damage from air pollutants on ecosystems. Such program shall include the following elements:
Consistent with the purpose of this program, the Administrator may use the estuarine research reserves established pursuant to section of title 16 to carry out this research.
Models pertaining to accidental release shall be evaluated and improved periodically for their utility in planning and implementing evacuation procedures and other mitigative strategies designed to minimize human exposure to hazardous air pollutants released accidentally.
In carrying out subsection (a), the Administrator shall conduct a basic engineering research and technology program to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate nonregulatory strategies and technologies for air pollution prevention. Such strategies and technologies shall be developed with priority on those pollutants which pose a significant risk to human health and the environment, and with opportunities for participation by industry, public interest groups, scientists, and other interested persons in the development of such strategies and technologies. Such program shall include the following elements:
Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the imposition on any person of air pollution control requirements. The Administrator shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to ensure coordination and to avoid duplication of activities authorized under this subsection.
The Administrator shall develop and implement a plan for identifying areas in which activities authorized under this section can be carried out in conjunction with other Federal ecological and air pollution research efforts. The plan, which shall be submitted to Congress within 6 months after November 15, 1990, shall include-
Not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990, and every 4 years thereafter, the Administrator shall report to Congress on the progress made in implementing the plan developed under this subsection, and shall include in such report any revisions of the plan.
If, in the judgment of the Administrator, an air pollution problem of substantial significance may result from discharge or discharges into the atmosphere, the Administrator may call a conference concerning this potential air pollution problem to be held in or near one or more of the places where such discharge or discharges are occurring or will occur. All interested persons shall be given an opportunity to be heard at such conference, either orally or in writing, and shall be permitted to appear in person or by representative in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Administrator. If the Administrator finds, on the basis of the evidence presented at such conference, that the discharge or discharges if permitted to take place or continue are likely to cause or contribute to air pollution subject to abatement under this part, the Administrator shall send such findings, together with recommendations concerning the measures which the Administrator finds reasonable and suitable to prevent such pollution, to the person or persons whose actions will result in the discharge or discharges involved; to air pollution agencies of the State or States and of the municipality or municipalities where such discharge or discharges will originate; and to the interstate air pollution control agency, if any, in the jurisdictional area of which any such municipality is located. Such findings and recommendations shall be advisory only, but shall be admitted together with the record of the conference, as part of the proceedings under subsections (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of section of this title.
1 So in original. Probably should be "precursors,".
2 So in original. Probably should be "precursors".
42 U.S.C. § 7403
July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §103, formerly §3, as added Pub. L. 88-206Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 394; renumbered §103 and amended Pub. L. 89-272Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992, 996; Pub. L. 90-148Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 486; Pub. L. 91-604Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676, 1689, 1710, 1713; Pub. L. 95-95Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 686, 687; Pub. L. 101-549, title IX, §901(a)-(c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2700-2703.
REFERENCES IN TEXTThe Acid Precipitation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (j)(1), (3)(A), is title VII of Pub. L. 96-294, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 770, which is classified generally to chapter 97 (§8901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under sectionof this title and Tables.
CODIFICATIONIn subsec. (b)(4), "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31 and sectionof title 41" substituted for "sections 3648 and 3709 of the Revised Statutes ( 31 U.S.C. 529; 41 U.S.C. 5)" on authority of Pub. L. 97-258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, which Act enacted Title 31, Money and Finance, and Pub. L. 111-350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.Section was formerly classified to section 1857b of this title.
PRIOR PROVISIONSProvisions similar to those in subsec. (a)(3) of this section were contained in subsec. (a) of a prior section 1857b of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §3, 69 Stat. 322, as amended Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87-761, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88-206. Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in prior sections 1857a to 1857d of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §§2 to 5, 69 Stat. 322 (section 1857b as amended Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87-761; section 1857d as amended Sept. 22, 1959, Pub. L. 86-365 and Oct. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87-761), prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88-206.
AMENDMENTS 1990-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101-549, §901(a)(1), inserted "(including health and welfare effects)" after "effects".Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 101-549, §901(a)(2), which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by adding par. (8) at end, was executed by adding par. (8) after par. (7) to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 101-549, §901(b), amended subsecs. (c) to (f) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (c), results of other scientific studies; in subsec. (d), construction of facilities; in subsec. (e), potential air pollution problems, conferences, and findings and recommendations of the Administrator; and, in subsec. (f), accelerated research programs.Subsecs. (g) to (k). Pub. L. 101-549, §901(c), added subsecs. (g) to (k).1977-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95-95struck out reference to "training" in par. (1) and added par. (5). Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95-95struck out par. (5) which provided for training and training grants to personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications, redesignated pars. (6), (7), and (8) as (5), (6), and (7), respectively, and, following par. (7) as so redesignated, inserted provisions directing the Administrator, in carrying out subsec. (a), to provide training for, and make training grants to, personnel of air pollution control agencies and other persons with suitable qualifications and to make grants to such agencies, to other public or nonprofit private agencies, institutions, and organizations for the purposes stated in subsec. (a)(5) and allowing reasonable fees to be charged for such training provided to persons other than personnel of air pollution control agencies but requiring that such training be provided to such personnel of air pollution control agencies without charge. 1970-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91-604substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91-604substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" and "Environmental Protection Agency" for "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare".Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91-604substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" and "air pollutants" for "air pollution agents (or combinations of agents)".Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91-604substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91-604substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing, substituted "7415" for "7415(a)", and inserted references to subsecs. (b) and (c) of section of this title.Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91-604added subsec. (f).1967-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90-148 substituted "establish technical advisory committees composed of recognized experts in various aspects of air pollution to assist in the examination and evaluation of research progress and proposals and to avoid duplication of research" for "initiate and conduct a program of research directed toward the development of improved, low-cost techniques for extracting sulfur from fuels" as cl. (4) and struck out cl. (5) which related to research programs relating to the control of hydrocarbon emissions from evaporation of gasoline and nitrogen and aldehyde oxide emission from gasoline and diesel powered vehicles and relating to the development of improved low-cost techniques to reduce emissions of oxides of sulfur produced by the combustion of sulfur-containing fuels.Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 90-148 struck out provision for promulgation of criteria in the case of particular air pollution agents present in the air in certain quantities reflecting the latest scientific knowledge and allowing for availability and revision and provided for recommendation by Secretary of air quality criteria. Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90-148 substituted references to subsections (d), (e), and (f) of section of this title for references to subsections (c), (d), and (e) of section of this title in provision for admission of advisory findings and recommendations together with the record of the conference and made such findings and recommendations part of the proceedings of the conference, not merely part of the record of proceedings. 1965-Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 89-272added par. (5).Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 89-272added subsecs. (d) and (e).
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1977 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 95-95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95-95, set out as a note under sectionof this title.
TERMINATION OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (i) of this section requiring quadrennial reports to Congress and of reporting provisions in subsec. (j)(3)(E) and (F) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104-66, as amended, set out as a note under sectionof Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 7th and 8th items on page 163 of House Document No. 103-7.
MODIFICATION OR RESCISSION OF RULES, REGULATIONS, ORDERS, DETERMINATIONS, CONTRACTS, CERTIFICATIONS, AUTHORIZATIONS, DELEGATIONS, AND OTHER ACTIONSAll rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95-95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95-95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95-95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under sectionof this title.
TERMINATION OF ADVISORY COMMITTEES Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92-463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.
PILOT DESIGN PROGRAMSPub. L. 106-246, div. B, title II, §2603, July 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 558, required the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to make grants to carry out a 2-year program to implement in five metropolitan areas pilot design programs and report to Congress on the results not later than 360 days from first day of the second year of the 2-year program.
NATIONAL ACID LAKES REGISTRY Pub. L. 101-549, title IV, §405, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2632, provided that: "The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall create a National Acid Lakes Registry that shall list, to the extent practical, all lakes that are known to be acidified due to acid deposition, and shall publish such list within one year of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990]. Lakes shall be added to the registry as they become acidic or as data becomes available to show they are acidic. Lakes shall be deleted from the registry as they become nonacidic."
ASSESSMENT OF INTERNATIONAL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIESPub. L. 101-549, title IX, §901(e), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2706, directed Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a study that compares international air pollution control technologies of selected industrialized countries to determine if there exist air pollution control technologies in countries outside the United States that may have beneficial applications to this Nation's air pollution control efforts, including, with respect to each country studied, the topics of urban air quality, motor vehicle emissions, toxic air emissions, and acid deposition, and within 2 years after Nov. 15, 1990, submit to Congress a report detailing the results of such study.
WESTERN STATES ACID DEPOSITION RESEARCH Pub. L. 101-549, title IX, §901(g), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2707, provided that:"(1) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall sponsor monitoring and research and submit to Congress annual and periodic assessment reports on- "(A) the occurrence and effects of acid deposition on surface waters located in that part of the United States west of the Mississippi River;"(B) the occurrence and effects of acid deposition on high elevation ecosystems (including forests, and surface waters); and"(C) the occurrence and effects of episodic acidification, particularly with respect to high elevation watersheds."(2) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall analyze data generated from the studies conducted under paragraph (1), data from the Western Lakes Survey, and other appropriate research and utilize predictive modeling techniques that take into account the unique geographic, climatological, and atmospheric conditions which exist in the western United States to determine the potential occurrence and effects of acid deposition due to any projected increases in the emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in that part of the United States located west of the Mississippi River. The Administrator shall include the results of the project conducted under this paragraph in the reports issued to Congress under paragraph (1)."
CONSULTATION WITH AND TRANSMISSION OF REPORTS AND STUDIES TO CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEEPub. L. 95-95Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 687, provided that: "The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall consult with the House Committee on Science and Technology [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] on the environmental and atmospheric research, development, and demonstration aspects of this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note set out under section of this title]. In addition, the reports and studies required by this Act that relate to research, development, and demonstration issues shall be transmitted to the Committee on Science and Technology [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] at the same time they are made available to other committees of the Congress."
STUDY OF SUBSTANCES DISCHARGED FROM EXHAUSTS OF MOTOR VEHICLESPub. L. 86-493, June 8, 1960, 74 Stat. 162, directed Surgeon General of Public Health Service to conduct a thorough study for purposes of determining, with respect to the various substances discharged from exhausts of motor vehicles, the amounts and kinds of such substances which, from the standpoint of human health, it is safe for motor vehicles to discharge into the atmosphere under the various conditions under which such vehicles may operate, and, not later than two years after June 8, 1960, submit to Congress a report on results of the study, together with such recommendations, if any, based upon the findings made in such study, as he deemed necessary for the protection of the public health.
- The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.
- The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. 1 See References in Text note below.
- The term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
- air pollutant
- The term "air pollutant" means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the particular purpose for which the term "air pollutant" is used.
- air pollution control agency
- The term "air pollution control agency" means any of the following: (1) A single State agency designated by the Governor of that State as the official State air pollution control agency for purposes of this chapter. (2) An agency established by two or more States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution. (3) A city, county, or other local government health authority, or, in the case of any city, county, or other local government in which there is an agency other than the health authority charged with responsibility for enforcing ordinances or laws relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, such other agency. (4) An agency of two or more municipalities located in the same State or in different States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution. (5) An agency of an Indian tribe.
- interstate air pollution control agency
- The term "interstate air pollution control agency" means- (1) an air pollution control agency established by two or more States, or (2) an air pollution control agency of two or more municipalities located in different States.
- The term "municipality" means a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public body created by or pursuant to State law.
- The term "person" includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, State, municipality, political subdivision of a State, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof.
- The terms "federally assisted housing" and "project" mean- (A) a public housing project (as such term is defined in section 3(b) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [ 42 U.S.C. 1437a(b) ]); (B) housing for which project-based assistance is provided under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [ 42 U.S.C. 1437f ]; (C) housing that is assisted under section 1701q of title 12; (D) housing that is assisted under section 1701q of title 12, as such section existed before November 28, 1990; (E) housing financed by a loan or mortgage insured under section 1715l(d)(3) of title 12 that bears interest at a rate determined under the proviso of section 1715l(d)(5) of title 12; (F) housing insured, assisted, or held by the Secretary or a State or State agency under section 1715z-1 of title 12; (G) housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [ 42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(2) ], as in effect before October 1, 1983, that is assisted under a contract for assistance under such section; and (H) housing that is assisted under section 8013 1 of this title.