It shall be an unfair labor practice for an employer-
It shall be an unfair labor practice for a labor organization or its agents-
Provided, That nothing contained in this subsection shall be construed to make unlawful a refusal by any person to enter upon the premises of any employer (other than his own employer), if the employees of such employer are engaged in a strike ratified or approved by a representative of such employees whom such employer is required to recognize under this subchapter: Provided further, That for the purposes of this paragraph (4) only, nothing contained in such paragraph shall be construed to prohibit publicity, other than picketing, for the purpose of truthfully advising the public, including consumers and members of a labor organization, that a product or products are produced by an employer with whom the labor organization has a primary dispute and are distributed by another employer, as long as such publicity does not have an effect of inducing any individual employed by any person other than the primary employer in the course of his employment to refuse to pick up, deliver, or transport any goods, or not to perform any services, at the establishment of the employer engaged in such distribution;
Nothing in this paragraph (7) shall be construed to permit any act which would otherwise be an unfair labor practice under this subsection.
The expressing of any views, argument, or opinion, or the dissemination thereof, whether in written, printed, graphic, or visual form, shall not constitute or be evidence of an unfair labor practice under any of the provisions of this subchapter, if such expression contains no threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit.
For the purposes of this section, to bargain collectively is the performance of the mutual obligation of the employer and the representative of the employees to meet at reasonable times and confer in good faith with respect to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment, or the negotiation of an agreement, or any question arising thereunder, and the execution of a written contract incorporating any agreement reached if requested by either party, but such obligation does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or require the making of a concession: Provided, That where there is in effect a collective-bargaining contract covering employees in an industry affecting commerce, the duty to bargain collectively shall also mean that no party to such contract shall terminate or modify such contract, unless the party desiring such termination or modification-
The duties imposed upon employers, employees, and labor organizations by paragraphs (2) to (4) of this subsection shall become inapplicable upon an intervening certification of the Board, under which the labor organization or individual, which is a party to the contract, has been superseded as or ceased to be the representative of the employees subject to the provisions of section strike within any notice period specified in this subsection, or who engages in any strike within the appropriate period specified in subsection (g) of this section, shall lose his status as an employee of the employer engaged in the particular labor dispute, for the purposes of sections , , and of this title, but such loss of status for such employee shall terminate if and when he is reemployed by such employer. Whenever the collective bargaining involves employees of a health care institution, the provisions of this subsection shall be modified as follows:of this title, and the duties so imposed shall not be construed as requiring either party to discuss or agree to any modification of the terms and conditions contained in a contract for a fixed period, if such modification is to become effective before such terms and conditions can be reopened under the provisions of the contract. Any employee who engages in a
It shall be an unfair labor practice for any labor organization and any employer to enter into any contract or agreement, express or implied, whereby such employer ceases or refrains or agrees to cease or refrain from handling, using, selling, transporting or otherwise dealing in any of the products of any other employer, or to cease doing business with any other person, and any contract or agreement entered into heretofore or hereafter containing such an agreement shall be to such extent unenforcible 1 and void: Provided, That nothing in this subsection shall apply to an agreement between a labor organization and an employer in the construction industry relating to the contracting or subcontracting of work to be done at the site of the construction, alteration, painting, or repair of a building, structure, or other work: Provided further, That for the purposes of this subsection and subsection (b)(4)(B) the terms "any employer", "any person engaged in commerce or an industry affecting commerce", and "any person" when used in relation to the terms "any other producer, processor, or manufacturer", "any other employer", or "any other person" shall not include persons in the relation of a jobber, manufacturer, contractor, or subcontractor working on the goods or premises of the jobber or manufacturer or performing parts of an integrated process of production in the apparel and clothing industry: Provided further, That nothing in this subchapter shall prohibit the enforcement of any agreement which is within the foregoing exception.
It shall not be an unfair labor practice under subsections (a) and (b) of this section for an employer engaged primarily in the building and construction industry to make an agreement covering employees engaged (or who, upon their employment, will be engaged) in the building and construction industry with a labor organization of which building and construction employees are members (not established, maintained, or assisted by any action defined in subsection (a) as an unfair labor practice) because (1) the majority status of such labor organization has not been established under the provisions of sectionof this title prior to the making of such agreement, or (2) such agreement requires as a condition of employment, membership in such labor organization after the seventh day following the beginning of such employment or the effective date of the agreement, whichever is later, or (3) such agreement requires the employer to notify such labor organization of opportunities for employment with such employer, or gives such labor organization an opportunity to refer qualified applicants for such employment, or (4) such agreement specifies minimum training or experience qualifications for employment or provides for priority in opportunities for employment based upon length of service with such employer, in the industry or in the particular geographical area: Provided, That nothing in this subsection shall set aside the final proviso to subsection (a)(3): Provided further, That any agreement which would be invalid, but for clause (1) of this subsection, shall not be a bar to a petition filed pursuant to section or of this title.
A labor organization before engaging in any strike, picketing, or other concerted refusal to work at any health care institution shall, not less than ten days prior to such action, notify the institution in writing and the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service of that intention, except that in the case of bargaining for an initial agreement following certification or recognition the notice required by this subsection shall not be given until the expiration of the period specified in clause (B) of the last sentence of subsection (d). The notice shall state the date and time that such action will commence. The notice, once given, may be extended by the written agreement of both parties.
1 So in original. Probably should be "unenforceable".
29 U.S.C. § 158
AMENDMENTS1974-Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93-360, §1(c), (d), substituted "any notice" for "the sixty-day" and inserted ", or who engages in any strike within the appropriate period specified in subsection (g) of this section," in loss-of-employee-status provision and inserted enumeration of modifications to this subsection which are to be applied whenever the collective bargaining involves employees of a health care institution.Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 93-360, §1(e), added subsec. (g). 1959-Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 86-257, §201(e), struck out "and has at the time the agreement was made or within the preceding twelve months received from the Board a notice of compliance with sections of this title" after "such agreement when made" in cl. (i).Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 86-257, §704(a), among other changes, substituted "induce or encourage any individual employed by any person engaged in commerce or in an industry affecting commerce to engage in, a strike or a refusal in the course of his employment" for "induce or encourage the employees of any employer to engage in, a strike or a concerted refusal in the course of their employment" in cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and inserted provisions relating to agreements prohibited by subsection (e) of this section in cl. (A), the proviso relating to primary strikes and primary picketing in cl. (B), and the last proviso relating to publicity.Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 86-257, §704(c), added par. (7).Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 86-257, §704(b), added subsec. (e).Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 86-257, §705(a), added subsec. (f). 1951-Subsec. (a)(3). Act Oct. 22, 1951, substituted "and has at the time the agreement was made or within the preceding twelve months received from the Board a notice of compliance with section of this title, and (ii) unless following an election held as provided in section of this title within one year preceding the effective date of such agreement, the Board shall have certified that at least a majority of the employees eligible to vote in such election have voted to rescind the authority of such labor organization to make such an agreement:" for "; and (ii) if, following the most recent election held as provided in section of this title the Board shall have certified that at least a majority of the employees eligible to vote in such election have voted to authorize such labor organization to make such an agreement:".1947-Act June 23, 1947, amended section generally by stating what were unfair labor practices by a union as well as by an employer, and by inserting provisions protecting the right of free speech for both employers and unions.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1974 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 93-360 effective on thirtieth day after July 26, 1974, see section 4 of Pub. L. 93-360 set out as an Effective Date note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1959 AMENDMENT Amendment by sections 704(a)-(c) and 705(a) of Pub. L. 86-257 effective sixty days after Sept. 14, 1959, see section 707 of Pub. L. 86-257 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1947 AMENDMENT For effective date of amendment by act June 23, 1947, see section 104 of act June 23, 1947, set out as a note under sectionof this title.
AGREEMENTS REQUIRING MEMBERSHIP IN A LABOR ORGANIZATION AS A CONDITION OF EMPLOYMENTSection 705(b) of Pub. L. 86-257 provided that: "Nothing contained in the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be construed as authorizing the execution or application of agreements requiring membership in a labor organization as a condition of employment in any State or Territory in which such execution or application is prohibited by State or Territorial Law."
UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICES PRIOR TO JUNE 23, 1947Act June 23, 1947, ch. 120, title I, §102, 61 Stat. 152, provided that: "No provision of this title [amending this subchapter] shall be deemed to make an unfair labor practice any act which was performed prior to the date of the enactment of this act [June 23, 1947] which did not constitute an unfair labor practice prior thereto, and the provisions of section 8(a)(3) and section 8(b)(2) of the National Labor Relations Act as amended by this title [subsecs. (a)(3) and (b)(2) of this section] shall not make an unfair labor practice the performance of any obligation under a collective-bargaining agreement entered into prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [June 23, 1947], or (in the case of an agreement for a period of not more than one year) entered into on or after such date of enactment, but prior to the effective date of this title, if the performance of such obligation would not have constituted an unfair labor practice under section 8(3) [see subsec. (a)(3) of this section] of the National Labor Relations Act prior to the effective date of this title [sixty days after June 23, 1947] unless such agreement was renewed or extended subsequent thereto."
- industry affecting commerce
- The term "industry affecting commerce" means any industry or activity in commerce or in which a labor dispute would burden or obstruct commerce or tend to burden or obstruct commerce or the free flow of commerce.
- The term "strike" includes any strike or other concerted stoppage of work by employees (including a stoppage by reason of the expiration of a collective-bargaining agreement) and any concerted slowdown or other concerted interruption of operations by employees.