Within fourteen days after being served with a copy, any party may serve and file written objections to such proposed findings and recommendations as provided by rules of court. A judge of the court shall make a de novo determination of those portions of the report or specified proposed findings or recommendations to which objection is made. A judge of the court may accept, reject, or modify, in whole or in part, the findings or recommendations made by the magistrate judge. The judge may also receive further evidence or recommit the matter to the magistrate judge with instructions.
the magistrate judge shall forthwith certify the facts to a district judge and may serve or cause to be served, upon any person whose behavior is brought into question under this paragraph, an order requiring such person to appear before a district judge upon a day certain to show cause why that person should not be adjudged in contempt by reason of the facts so certified. The district judge shall thereupon hear the evidence as to the act or conduct complained of and, if it is such as to warrant punishment, punish such person in the same manner and to the same extent as for a contempt committed before a district judge.
1 So in original. Probably should be "post-trial".
28 U.S.C. § 636
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTESPrior jurisdiction, powers, and procedure provisions in section 632.-Based on sections 27, 66, 67, 68, 80f, 100, 117e, 129, 172, 181b, 204e, 256d, 376, 395e, 403c-5, 403c-6, 403h-5, 404c-5, and 408m of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Conservation (May 7, 1894, ch. 72, §5, 28 Stat. 74; Apr. 20, 1904, ch. 1400, §6, 33 Stat. 188; Mar. 2, 1907ch. 2516, §§1Mar. 2, 1907, 2Mar. 2, 1907, 34 Stat. 1218; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 230, 36 Stat. 1086; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Aug. 22, 1914, ch. 264, §6, 38 Stat. 700; June 30, 1916, ch. 197, §6, 39 Stat. 245; Aug. 21, 1916, ch. 368, §6, 39 Stat. 523; June 2, 1920, ch. 218, §§7, 8, 41 Stat. 733; Apr. 25, 1928, ch. 434, §6, 45 Stat. 460; Apr. 26, 1928, ch. 438, §6, 45 Stat. 464; Apr. 19, 1930, ch. 200, §6, 4 Stat. 228; May 2, 1932, ch. 155, §3, 47 Stat. 145; June 25, 1935, ch. 309, §1, 49 Stat. 422; Aug. 19, 1937, ch. 703, §§5, 6, 50 Stat. 702; June 25, 1938, ch. 684, §1, 52 Stat. 1164; June 28, 1938, ch. 778, §1, 52 Stat. 1213; Mar. 4, 1940, ch. 40, §2, 54 Stat. 43; Mar. 6, 1942, ch. 150, §5, 56 Stat. 134; Mar. 6, 1942, ch. 151, §5, 56 Stat. 137; Apr. 29, 1942, ch. 264, §5, 56 Stat. 260; June 5, 1942, ch. 341, §5, 56 Stat. 318; Apr. 23, 1946, ch. 202, §2, 60 Stat. 120; June 24, 1946, ch. 463, §2, 60 Stat. 303). Section consolidates provisions of sections 27, 66, 67, 68, 80f, 100, 117e, 129, 172, 181b, 204e, 256d, 376, 395e, 403c-5, 403c-6, 403h-5, 404c-5 and 408m of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to jurisdiction and powers of park commissioners with necessary changes in arrangement and phraseology. For other provisions of such sections, see Distribution Table.The provisions of sections 27, 66, 67, 68, 100, 117e, 129, 172, 181b, 204e, 256d, 376, 395e, 403c-5, 403c-6, 403h-5, 404c-5 and 408m of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to the powers of park commissioners respecting issuance of warrants of arrest and other process were omitted and are recommended for repeal as covered by sections 3041 and 3141 of revised title 18 (H.R. 1600, 80th Cong.), and Rules, 4, 5(c), and 9 of the new Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.Provisions in sections 27, 66, 67, 68, 100, 117e, 129, 172, 181b, 204e, 256d, 376, 395e, 403c-5, 403c-6, 403h-5, 404c-5 and 408m of title 16, U.S.C., 1940 ed., for arrest without warrant for violation of law or regulation within a national park were also omitted and are recommended for repeal as covered by section 3054 of revised title 18 (H.R. 2200, 79th Cong.), Rule 4 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure and Rule 4 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
SENATE REVISION AMENDMENTAs finally enacted, section 158b of Title 16, U.S.C., which was derived from act May 15, 1947, ch. 55, §2, 61 Stat. 92, was an additional source of this section, and such act was accordingly included by Senate amendment in the schedule of repeals. No change in the text of the section was necessary as the result of inclusion of such section 158b. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559.As finally enacted, act May 15, 1947, ch. 57, 61 Stat. 92, which amended section 403c-5 of Title 16, U.S.C., was an additional source of this section, and such act was accordingly included by Senate amendment in the schedule of repeals. See 80th Congress Senate Report No. 1559. Prior oaths, acknowledgments, affidavits, and depositions provisions in section 637.-Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§525, 758 (R.S. §945; May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §19, 29 Stat. 184; Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 814, 31 Stat. 956; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167). This section consolidates part of section 525 with section 758 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed. The provision of said section 525 empowering clerks and deputy clerks to administer oaths is incorporated in section 953 of this title. The provision of said section 758 that acknowledgments of bail and affidavits should have the same effect as if taken before judges was omitted as surplusage.The exception as to Alaska, provided in section 591 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and referred to in section 525 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was omitted as unnecessary since section 108 of title 48, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Territories and Insular Possessions, and section 1119 of the Compiled Laws of Alaska, 1933, give commissioners all powers of notaries public. See also reviser's notes to sections 631 and 633 of this title.Word "acknowledgments" was inserted to make it clear that commissioners, like justices of the peace, can take acknowledgments as well as oaths, affidavits, etc.The authority to take depositions was included to conform to Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 28.Changes were made in phraseology.
REFERENCES IN TEXTThe Rules of Criminal Procedure for the United States District Courts, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (e)(2)-(4), are set out in the Appendix to Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure for the United States district courts, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2), (c)(3), and (e)(4), are set out in the Appendix to this title.
AMENDMENTS2009-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111-16 substituted "fourteen days" for "ten days" in concluding provisions.2005-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109-63 substituted "district in which sessions are held by the court that appointed the magistrate judge, at other places where that court may function, and elsewhere as authorized by law-" for "territorial jurisdiction prescribed by his appointment-" in introductory provisions. 2002-Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 107-273, §3002(b)(1), inserted ", or both," after "fine or imprisonment".Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 107-273, §3002(b)(2), inserted "or both," after "fine or imprisonment,".2000-Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 106-518, §203(b), added pars. (4) and (5) and struck out former pars. (4) and (5) which read as follows:"(4) the power to enter a sentence for a petty offense that is a class B misdemeanor charging a motor vehicle offense, a class C misdemeanor, or an infraction; and "(5) the power to enter a sentence for a class A misdemeanor, or a class B or C misdemeanor not covered by paragraph (4), in a case in which the parties have consented."Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106-518, §202, amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) specified conduct before a magistrate judge which constituted contempt of court and prescribed procedure for adjudicating and punishing contempts. 1996-Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104-317, §202(b)(1), substituted a semicolon for ", and" at end.Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 104-317, §202(b)(2), added pars. (4) and (5) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "the power to enter a sentence for a misdemeanor or infraction with the consent of the parties." Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 104-317, §207(1)(A), substituted "The consent of the parties" for "In this circumstance, the consent of the parties".Subsec. (c)(4) to (7). Pub. L. 104-317, §207(1)(B), (C), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (4) and (5) and struck out former pars. (4) and (5) which read as follows:"(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (3) of this subsection, at the time of reference to a magistrate, the parties may further consent to appeal on the record to a judge of the district court in the same manner as on an appeal from a judgment of the district court to a court of appeals. Wherever possible the local rules of the district court and the rules promulgated by the conference shall endeavor to make such appeal inexpensive. The district court may affirm, reverse, modify, or remand the magistrate's judgment."(5) Cases in the district courts under paragraph (4) of this subsection may be reviewed by the appropriate United States court of appeals upon petition for leave to appeal by a party stating specific objections to the judgment. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to be a limitation on any party's right to seek review by the Supreme Court of the United States." Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104-317, §207(2), struck out ", and for the taking and hearing of appeals to the district courts," after "officers serving under this chapter".Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104-317, §201, substituted "subsection (a), (b), or (c)" for "subsection (a) or (b)" in first sentence.1990-Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101-650 substituted "the availability of a magistrate to exercise" for "their right to consent to the exercise of" in first sentence and amended third sentence generally. Prior to amendment, third sentence read as follows: "Thereafter, neither the district judge nor the magistrate shall attempt to persuade or induce any party to consent to reference of any civil matter to a magistrate."1988-Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 100-690 added par. (4).Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100-702, §1014, amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "The magistrate shall determine, taking into account the complexity of the particular matter referred to the magistrate, whether the record in the proceeding shall be taken, pursuant to section 753 of this title, by electronic sound recording means, by a court reporter appointed or employed by the court to take a verbatim record by shorthand or by mechanical means, or by an employee of the court designated by the court to take such a verbatim record. Notwithstanding the magistrate's determination, (A) the proceeding shall be taken down by a court reporter if any party so requests, (B) the proceeding shall be recorded by a means other than a court reporter if all parties so agree, and (C) no record of the proceeding shall be made if all parties so agree. Reporters referred to in this paragraph may be transferred for temporary service in any district court of the judicial circuit for reporting proceedings under this subsection, or for other reporting duties in such court." Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100-702, §404(b)(1), substituted "section 2072 of this title" for "section 3402 of title 18, United States Code".Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100-659 inserted "section 377 of this title or in" after "annuity set forth in" and "which are applicable to such magistrate" after "title 5" in second sentence. 1986-Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99-651 added subsec. (h).1984-Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98-473 substituted "issue orders pursuant to section 3142 of title 18 concerning release or detention of persons pending trial" for "impose conditions of release under section 3146 of title 18".Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 98-620 struck out "expeditious and" before "inexpensive". 1979-Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96-82, §2(2), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 96-82, §2(1), redesignated former subsecs. (c) to (f) as (d) to (g), respectively.1977-Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95-144 added subsec. (f).1976-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-577 completely revised provisions under which additional duties may be assigned to a United States Magistrate by allowing, among other additional duties, the assignment of pretrial matters, dispositive motions, and service as a special master.1972- Pub. L. 92-239, §2, substituted "Jurisdiction, powers, and temporary assignment" for "Jurisdiction and powers" in section catchline.Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 92-239, §1, added subsec. (e). 1968- Pub. L. 90-578 substituted provisions declaratory of jurisdiction and powers of United States magistrates for prior provisions respecting rendition of accounts by United States commissioners.
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
CHANGE OF NAMEWords "magistrate judge", "magistrate judge's", and "magistrate judges" substituted for "magistrate", "magistrate's", and "magistrates", respectively, wherever appearing in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101-650 set out as a note under section 631 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2009 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 111-16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111-16 set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENTS Amendment by section 404(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100-702 effective Dec. 1, 1988, see section 407 of Pub. L. 100-702 set out as a note under section 2071 of this title.Amendment by Pub. L. 100-659 effective Nov. 15, 1988, and applicable to bankruptcy judges and magistrate judges who retire on or after Nov. 15, 1988, with exception for bankruptcy judges and magistrate judges retiring on or after July 31, 1987, see section 9 of Pub. L. 100-659 as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 377 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 99-651 effective Jan. 1, 1987, see section 203 of Pub. L. 99-651 set out as a note under section 155 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 98-620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98-620 set out as an Effective Date note under section 1657 of this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1968 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 90-578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90-578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90-578 set out as a note under section 631 of this title.
- "Conference" shall mean the Judicial Conference of the United States;
- "Council" shall mean the Judicial Council of the Circuit;
- Full-time magistrate judge
- "Full-time magistrate judge" shall mean a full-time United States magistrate judge;
- Part-time magistrate judge
- "Part-time magistrate judge" shall mean a part-time United States magistrate judge; and
- magistrate judge
- "United States magistrate judge" and "magistrate judge" shall mean both full-time and part-time United States magistrate judges.
- United States magistrate judge
- "United States magistrate judge" and "magistrate judge" shall mean both full-time and part-time United States magistrate judges.