28 U.S.C. § 157
CONSTITUTIONALITY For information regarding constitutionality of certain provisions of this section, as added by section 104(a) of Pub. L. 98-353 see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.
AMENDMENTS2005-Subsec. (b)(2)(P). Pub. L. 109-8 added subpar. (P). 1994-Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103-394 added subsec. (e). 1986-Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99-554 in subpar. (B) substituted "interests" for "interest" and inserted reference to chapter 12, and in subpar. (G) inserted a comma after "annul".
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under sectionof Title 11.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under Title 11, Bankruptcy, before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under sectionof Title 11.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, see section 302(a) of Pub. L. 99-554 set out as a note under section 581 of this title.