No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, except that:
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall apply only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, and graduate higher education, and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education;
in regard to admissions to educational institutions, this section shall not apply (A) for one year from June 23, 1972, nor for six years after June 23, 1972, in the case of an educational institution which has begun the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education or (B) for seven years from the date an educational institution begins the process of changing from being an institution which admits only students of only one sex to being an institution which admits students of both sexes, but only if it is carrying out a plan for such a change which is approved by the Secretary of Education, whichever is the later;
this section shall not apply to an educational institution which is controlled by a religious organization if the application of this subsection would not be consistent with the religious tenets of such organization;
this section shall not apply to an educational institution whose primary purpose is the training of individuals for the military services of the United States, or the merchant marine;
in regard to admissions this section shall not apply to any public institution of undergraduate higher education which is an institution that traditionally and continually from its establishment has had a policy of admitting only students of one sex;
this section shall not apply to membership practices-
this section shall not apply to-
this section shall not preclude father-son or mother-daughter activities at an educational institution, but if such activities are provided for students of one sex, opportunities for reasonably comparable activities shall be provided for students of the other sex; and
this section shall not apply with respect to any scholarship or other financial assistance awarded by an institution of higher education to any individual because such individual has received such award in any pageant in which the attainment of such award is based upon a combination of factors related to the personal appearance, poise, and talent of such individual and in which participation is limited to individuals of one sex only, so long as such pageant is in compliance with other nondiscrimination provisions of Federal law.
Nothing contained in subsection (a) of this section shall be interpreted to require any educational institution to grant preferential or disparate treatment to the members of one sex on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of that sex participating in or receiving the benefits of any federally supported program or activity, in comparison with the total number or percentage of persons of that sex in any community, State, section, or other area: Provided, That this subsection shall not be construed to prevent the consideration in any hearing or proceeding under this chapter of statistical evidence tending to show that such an imbalance exists with respect to the participation in, or receipt of the benefits of, any such program or activity by the members of one sex.
For purposes of this chapter an educational institution means any public or private preschool, elementary, or secondary school, or any institution of vocational, professional, or higher education, except that in the case of an educational institution composed of more than one school, college, or department which are administratively separate units, such term means each such school, college, or department.
20 U.S.C. § 1681
REFERENCES IN TEXTThis chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original "this title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 92-318 which enacted this chapter and amended sectionsand of Title 29, Labor, and sections , , , and of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.
AMENDMENTS1986-Subsec. (a)(6)(A). Pub. L. 99-514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text. 1976-Subsec. (a)(6) to (9). Pub. L. 94-482 substituted "this" for "This" in par. (6) and added pars. (7) to (9). 1974-Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 93-568 added par. (6).
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1976 AMENDMENTPub. L. 94-482, title IV, §412(b), Oct. 12, 1976, 90 Stat. 2234, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect upon the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 12, 1976]."
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1974 AMENDMENTPub. L. 93-568, §3(b), Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1862, provided that: "The provisions of the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective on, and retroactive to, July 1, 1972."
SHORT TITLE OF 1988 AMENDMENTPub. L. 100-259, §1, Mar. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 28, provided that: "This Act [enacting sectionsand of this title and section of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections and of Title 29, Labor, and section of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections and of this title] may be cited as the 'Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987'."
SHORT TITLE Pub. L. 107-255, 116 Stat. 1734, provided "That title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 ( 20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.; Public Law 92-318) [title IX of Pub. L. 92-318 enacting this chapter and amending sectionsand of Title 29, Labor, and sections , , , and of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act'."
TRANSFER OF FUNCTIONS"Secretary" substituted for "Commissioner" in subsec. (a)(2) pursuant to sections 301(a)(1) and 507 of Pub. L. 96-88 which are classified to sectionsand of this title and which transferred functions of Commissioner of Education to Secretary of Education.
REGULATIONS; NATURE OF PARTICULAR SPORTS: INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ACTIVITIESPub. L. 93-380, title VIII, §844, Aug. 21, 1974, 88 Stat. 612, directed Secretary to prepare and publish, not more than 30 days after Aug. 21, 1974, proposed regulations implementing the provisions of this chapter regarding prohibition of sex discrimination in federally assisted programs, including reasonable regulations for intercollegiate athletic activities considering the nature of the particular sports.
COORDINATION OF IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF PROVISIONSFor provisions relating to the coordination of implementation and enforcement of the provisions of this chapter by the Attorney General, see section 1-201(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12250, Nov. 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 72995, set out under sectionof Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.
EX. ORD. NO. 14021. GUARANTEEING AN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT FREE FROM DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX, INCLUDING SEXUAL ORIENTATION OR GENDER IDENTITYEx. Ord. No. 14021, Mar. 8, 2021, 86 F.R. 13803, provided:By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:SECTION 1. Policy. It is the policy of my Administration that all students should be guaranteed an educational environment free from discrimination on the basis of sex, including discrimination in the form of sexual harassment, which encompasses sexual violence, and including discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. For students attending schools and other educational institutions that receive Federal financial assistance, this guarantee is codified, in part, in Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, 20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq., which prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in education programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance. SEC. 2. Review of Agency Actions. (a) Within 100 days of the date of this order [Mar. 8, 2021], the Secretary of Education, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall review all existing regulations, orders, guidance documents, policies, and any other similar agency actions (collectively, agency actions) that are or may be inconsistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, and provide the findings of this review to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget.(i) As part of the review required under subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary of Education shall review the rule entitled "Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance," 85 FR 30026 (May 19, 2020), and any other agency actions taken pursuant to that rule, for consistency with governing law, including Title IX, and with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.(ii) As soon as practicable, and as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, the Secretary of Education shall review existing guidance and issue new guidance as needed on the implementation of the rule described in subsection (a)(i) of this section, for consistency with governing law, including Title IX, and with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.(iii) The Secretary of Education shall consider suspending, revising, or rescinding-or publishing for notice and comment proposed rules suspending, revising, or rescinding-those agency actions that are inconsistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order as soon as practicable and as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, and may issue such requests for information as would facilitate doing so.(b) The Secretary of Education shall consider taking additional enforcement actions, as appropriate and consistent with applicable law, to enforce the policy set forth in section 1 of this order as well as legal prohibitions on sex discrimination in the form of sexual harassment, which encompasses sexual violence, to the fullest extent permissible under law; to account for intersecting forms of prohibited discrimination that can affect the availability of resources and support for students who have experienced sex discrimination, including discrimination on the basis of race, disability, and national origin; to account for the significant rates at which students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) are subject to sexual harassment, which encompasses sexual violence; to ensure that educational institutions are providing appropriate support for students who have experienced sex discrimination; and to ensure that their school procedures are fair and equitable for all.SEC. 3. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect: (i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. J.R. Biden, Jr.