18 U.S.C. § 924

Current through P.L. 116-21 (6/12/2019)
Section 924 - Penalties
(a)
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, subsection (b), (c), (f), or (p) of this section, or in section 929, whoever-
(A) knowingly makes any false statement or representation with respect to the information required by this chapter to be kept in the records of a person licensed under this chapter or in applying for any license or exemption or relief from disability under the provisions of this chapter;
(B) knowingly violates subsection (a)(4), (f), (k), or (q) of section 922;
(C) knowingly imports or brings into the United States or any possession thereof any firearm or ammunition in violation of section 922(l); or
(D) willfully violates any other provision of this chapter,

shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(2) Whoever knowingly violates subsection (a)(6), (d), (g), (h), (i), (j), or (o) of section 922 shall be fined as provided in this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
(3) Any licensed dealer, licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, or licensed collector who knowingly-
(A) makes any false statement or representation with respect to the information required by the provisions of this chapter to be kept in the records of a person licensed under this chapter, or
(B) violates subsection (m) of section 922,

shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(4) Whoever violates section 922(q) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the term of imprisonment imposed under this paragraph shall not run concurrently with any other term of imprisonment imposed under any other provision of law. Except for the authorization of a term of imprisonment of not more than 5 years made in this paragraph, for the purpose of any other law a violation of section 922(q) shall be deemed to be a misdemeanor.
(5) Whoever knowingly violates subsection (s) or (t) of section 922 shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 1 year, or both.
(6)
(A)
(i) A juvenile who violates section 922(x) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both, except that a juvenile described in clause (ii) shall be sentenced to probation on appropriate conditions and shall not be incarcerated unless the juvenile fails to comply with a condition of probation.
(ii) A juvenile is described in this clause if-
(I) the offense of which the juvenile is charged is possession of a handgun or ammunition in violation of section 922(x)(2); and
(II) the juvenile has not been convicted in any court of an offense (including an offense under section 922(x) or a similar State law, but not including any other offense consisting of conduct that if engaged in by an adult would not constitute an offense) or adjudicated as a juvenile delinquent for conduct that if engaged in by an adult would constitute an offense.
(B) A person other than a juvenile who knowingly violates section 922(x)-
(i) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both; and
(ii) if the person sold, delivered, or otherwise transferred a handgun or ammunition to a juvenile knowing or having reasonable cause to know that the juvenile intended to carry or otherwise possess or discharge or otherwise use the handgun or ammunition in the commission of a crime of violence, shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
(7) Whoever knowingly violates section 931 shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 3 years, or both.
(b) Whoever, with intent to commit therewith an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year, or with knowledge or reasonable cause to believe that an offense punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year is to be committed therewith, ships, transports, or receives a firearm or any ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.
(c)
(1)
(A) Except to the extent that a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided by this subsection or by any other provision of law, any person who, during and in relation to any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime (including a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime that provides for an enhanced punishment if committed by the use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or device) for which the person may be prosecuted in a court of the United States, uses or carries a firearm, or who, in furtherance of any such crime, possesses a firearm, shall, in addition to the punishment provided for such crime of violence or drug trafficking crime-
(i) be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 5 years;
(ii) if the firearm is brandished, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 7 years; and
(iii) if the firearm is discharged, be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 10 years.
(B) If the firearm possessed by a person convicted of a violation of this subsection-
(i) is a short-barreled rifle, short-barreled shotgun, or semiautomatic assault weapon, the person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 10 years; or
(ii) is a machinegun or a destructive device, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, the person shall be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 30 years.
(C) In the case of a violation of this subsection that occurs after a prior conviction under this subsection has become final, the person shall-
(i) be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 25 years; and
(ii) if the firearm involved is a machinegun or a destructive device, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, be sentenced to imprisonment for life.
(D) Notwithstanding any other provision of law-
(i) a court shall not place on probation any person convicted of a violation of this subsection; and
(ii) no term of imprisonment imposed on a person under this subsection shall run concurrently with any other term of imprisonment imposed on the person, including any term of imprisonment imposed for the crime of violence or drug trafficking crime during which the firearm was used, carried, or possessed.
(2) For purposes of this subsection, the term "drug trafficking crime" means any felony punishable under the Controlled Substances Act ( 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act ( 21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46.
(3) For purposes of this subsection the term "crime of violence" means an offense that is a felony and-
(A) has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person or property of another, or
(B) that by its nature, involves a substantial risk that physical force against the person or property of another may be used in the course of committing the offense.
(4) For purposes of this subsection, the term "brandish" means, with respect to a firearm, to display all or part of the firearm, or otherwise make the presence of the firearm known to another person, in order to intimidate that person, regardless of whether the firearm is directly visible to that person.
(5) Except to the extent that a greater minimum sentence is otherwise provided under this subsection, or by any other provision of law, any person who, during and in relation to any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime (including a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime that provides for an enhanced punishment if committed by the use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or device) for which the person may be prosecuted in a court of the United States, uses or carries armor piercing ammunition, or who, in furtherance of any such crime, possesses armor piercing ammunition, shall, in addition to the punishment provided for such crime of violence or drug trafficking crime or conviction under this section-
(A) be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of not less than 15 years; and
(B) if death results from the use of such ammunition-
(i) if the killing is murder (as defined in section 1111), be punished by death or sentenced to a term of imprisonment for any term of years or for life; and
(ii) if the killing is manslaughter (as defined in section 1112), be punished as provided in section 1112.
(d)
(1) Any firearm or ammunition involved in or used in any knowing violation of subsection (a)(4), (a)(6), (f), (g), (h), (i), (j), or (k) of section 922, or knowing importation or bringing into the United States or any possession thereof any firearm or ammunition in violation of section 922(l), or knowing violation of section 924, or willful violation of any other provision of this chapter or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, or any violation of any other criminal law of the United States, or any firearm or ammunition intended to be used in any offense referred to in paragraph (3) of this subsection, where such intent is demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture, and all provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and disposition of firearms, as defined in section 5845(a) of that Code, shall, so far as applicable, extend to seizures and forfeitures under the provisions of this chapter: Provided, That upon acquittal of the owner or possessor, or dismissal of the charges against him other than upon motion of the Government prior to trial, or lapse of or court termination of the restraining order to which he is subject, the seized or relinquished firearms or ammunition shall be returned forthwith to the owner or possessor or to a person delegated by the owner or possessor unless the return of the firearms or ammunition would place the owner or possessor or his delegate in violation of law. Any action or proceeding for the forfeiture of firearms or ammunition shall be commenced within one hundred and twenty days of such seizure.
(2)
(A) In any action or proceeding for the return of firearms or ammunition seized under the provisions of this chapter, the court shall allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee, and the United States shall be liable therefor.
(B) In any other action or proceeding under the provisions of this chapter, the court, when it finds that such action was without foundation, or was initiated vexatiously, frivolously, or in bad faith, shall allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee, and the United States shall be liable therefor.
(C) Only those firearms or quantities of ammunition particularly named and individually identified as involved in or used in any violation of the provisions of this chapter or any rule or regulation issued thereunder, or any other criminal law of the United States or as intended to be used in any offense referred to in paragraph (3) of this subsection, where such intent is demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence, shall be subject to seizure, forfeiture, and disposition.
(D) The United States shall be liable for attorneys' fees under this paragraph only to the extent provided in advance by appropriation Acts.
(3) The offenses referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2)(C) of this subsection are-
(A) any crime of violence, as that term is defined in section 924(c)(3) of this title;
(B) any offense punishable under the Controlled Substances Act ( 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.) or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act ( 21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.);
(C) any offense described in section 922(a)(1), 922(a)(3), 922(a)(5),or 922(b)(3) of this title, where the firearm or ammunition intended to be used in any such offense is involved in a pattern of activities which includes a violation of any offense described in section 922(a)(1), 922(a)(3), 922(a)(5),or 922(b)(3) of this title;
(D) any offense described in section 922(d) of this title where the firearm or ammunition is intended to be used in such offense by the transferor of such firearm or ammunition;
(E) any offense described in section 922(i), 922(j), 922(l), 922(n),or 924(b) of this title; and
(F) any offense which may be prosecuted in a court of the United States which involves the exportation of firearms or ammunition.
(e)
(1) In the case of a person who violates section 922(g) of this title and has three previous convictions by any court referred to in section 922(g)(1) of this title for a violent felony or a serious drug offense, or both, committed on occasions different from one another, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned not less than fifteen years, and, notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not suspend the sentence of, or grant a probationary sentence to, such person with respect to the conviction under section 922(g).
(2) As used in this subsection-
(A) the term "serious drug offense" means-
(i) an offense under the Controlled Substances Act ( 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act ( 21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46 for which a maximum term of imprisonment of ten years or more is prescribed by law; or
(ii) an offense under State law, involving manufacturing, distributing, or possessing with intent to manufacture or distribute, a controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802)), for which a maximum term of imprisonment of ten years or more is prescribed by law;
(B) the term "violent felony" means any crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding one year, or any act of juvenile delinquency involving the use or carrying of a firearm, knife, or destructive device that would be punishable by imprisonment for such term if committed by an adult, that-
(i) has as an element the use, attempted use, or threatened use of physical force against the person of another; or
(ii) is burglary, arson, or extortion, involves use of explosives, or otherwise involves conduct that presents a serious potential risk of physical injury to another; and
(C) the term "conviction" includes a finding that a person has committed an act of juvenile delinquency involving a violent felony.
(f) In the case of a person who knowingly violates section 922(p), such person shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.
(g) Whoever, with the intent to engage in conduct which-
(1) constitutes an offense listed in section 1961(1),
(2) is punishable under the Controlled Substances Act ( 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act ( 21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46,
(3) violates any State law relating to any controlled substance (as defined in section 102(6) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802(6))), or
(4) constitutes a crime of violence (as defined in subsection (c)(3)),

travels from any State or foreign country into any other State and acquires, transfers, or attempts to acquire or transfer, a firearm in such other State in furtherance of such purpose, shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, fined in accordance with this title, or both.

(h) Whoever knowingly transfers a firearm, knowing that such firearm will be used to commit a crime of violence (as defined in subsection (c)(3)) or drug trafficking crime (as defined in subsection (c)(2)) shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, fined in accordance with this title, or both.
(i)
(1) A person who knowingly violates section 922(u) shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
(2) Nothing contained in this subsection shall be construed as indicating an intent on the part of Congress to occupy the field in which provisions of this subsection operate to the exclusion of State laws on the same subject matter, nor shall any provision of this subsection be construed as invalidating any provision of State law unless such provision is inconsistent with any of the purposes of this subsection.
(j) A person who, in the course of a violation of subsection (c), causes the death of a person through the use of a firearm, shall-
(1) if the killing is a murder (as defined in section 1111), be punished by death or by imprisonment for any term of years or for life; and
(2) if the killing is manslaughter (as defined in section 1112), be punished as provided in that section.
(k) A person who, with intent to engage in or to promote conduct that-
(1) is punishable under the Controlled Substances Act ( 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.), the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act ( 21 U.S.C. 951 et seq.), or chapter 705 of title 46;
(2) violates any law of a State relating to any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act, 21 U.S.C. 802); or
(3) constitutes a crime of violence (as defined in subsection (c)(3)),

smuggles or knowingly brings into the United States a firearm, or attempts to do so, shall be imprisoned not more than 10 years, fined under this title, or both.

(l) A person who steals any firearm which is moving as, or is a part of, or which has moved in, interstate or foreign commerce shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years, fined under this title, or both.
(m) A person who steals any firearm from a licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed dealer, or licensed collector shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both.
(n) A person who, with the intent to engage in conduct that constitutes a violation of section 922(a)(1)(A), travels from any State or foreign country into any other State and acquires, or attempts to acquire, a firearm in such other State in furtherance of such purpose shall be imprisoned for not more than 10 years.
(o) A person who conspires to commit an offense under subsection (c) shall be imprisoned for not more than 20 years, fined under this title, or both; and if the firearm is a machinegun or destructive device, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or muffler, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or life.
(p) PENALTIES RELATING TO SECURE GUN STORAGE OR SAFETY DEVICE.-
(1) IN GENERAL.-
(A) SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF LICENSE; CIVIL PENALTIES.-With respect to each violation of section 922(z)(1) by a licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer, the Secretary may, after notice and opportunity for hearing-
(i) suspend for not more than 6 months, or revoke, the license issued to the licensee under this chapter that was used to conduct the firearms transfer; or
(ii) subject the licensee to a civil penalty in an amount equal to not more than $2,500.
(B) REVIEW.-An action of the Secretary under this paragraph may be reviewed only as provided under section 923(f).
(2) ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES.-The suspension or revocation of a license or the imposition of a civil penalty under paragraph (1) shall not preclude any administrative remedy that is otherwise available to the Secretary.

18 U.S.C. § 924

Added Pub. L. 90-351June 19, 1968, 82 Stat. 233; amended Pub. L. 90-618Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1223; Pub. L. 91-644Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1889; Pub. L. 98-473, title II, §§223(a), 1005(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2028, 2138; Pub. L. 99-308, §104(a), May 19, 1986, 100 Stat. 456; Pub. L. 99-514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 99-570, title I, §1402, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207-39; Pub. L. 100-649, §2(b), (f)(2)(B), (D), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3817, 3818; Pub. L. 100-690, title VI, §§6211, 6212, 6451, 6460, 6462, title VII, §§7056, 7060(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4359, 4360, 4371, 4373, 4374, 4402, 4403; Pub. L. 101-647-3529, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4829, 4845, 4857, 4924; Pub. L. 103-1591993; Pub. L. 103-3221994; Pub. L. 104-2941996; Pub. L. 105-3861998; Pub. L. 107-2732002; Pub. L. 108-1742003; Pub. L. 109-922005; Pub. L. 109-3042006; Pub. L. 115-391Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5221.

Amendment of SectionPub. L. 100-649, §2(f)(2)(B), (D), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3818, as amended by Pub. L. 101-6471990; Pub. L. 105-2771998; Pub. L. 108-1742003; Pub. L. 113-57Dec. 9, 2013, 127 Stat. 656, provided that, effective 35 years after the 30th day beginning after Nov. 10, 1988, subsection (a)(1) of this section is amended by striking "this subsection, subsection (b), (c), or (f) of this section, or in section 929" and inserting "this chapter", subsection (f) of this section is repealed, and subsections (g) through (o) of this section are redesignated as subsections (f) through (n), respectively, of this section.

REFERENCES IN TEXTThe Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is set out as Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.Section 5845(a) of that Code, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is classified to section 5845(a) of Title 26.The Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2), (d)(3)(B), (e)(2)(A)(i), (g)(2), and (k)(1), is title II of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1242, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§801 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 21 and Tables.The Controlled Substances Import and Export Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2), (d)(3)(B), (e)(2)(A)(i), (g)(2), and (k)(1), is title III of Pub. L. 91-513, Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1285, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter II (§951 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 21. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 951 of Title 21 and Tables.

CONSTITUTIONALITYFor information regarding constitutionality of certain provisions of this section, as added by section 1402(b) of Pub. L. 99-570, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

AMENDMENTS 2018-Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115-391 substituted "violation of this subsection that occurs after a prior conviction under this subsection has become final" for "second or subsequent conviction under this subsection" in introductory provisions. 2006-Subsecs. (c)(2), (e)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109-304substituted "chapter 705 of title 46" for "the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)".Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 109-304substituted "801 et seq." for "802 et seq." and "chapter 705 of title 46" for "the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)".Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 109-304substituted "chapter 705 of title 46" for "the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)".2005-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109-92substituted "(f), or (p)" for "or (f)" in introductory provisions.Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 109-92added par. (5).Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 109-92added subsec. (p). 2002-Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 107-273added par. (7).Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107-273substituted "under this title" for "not more than $25,000". 1998-Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105-386added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Whoever, during and in relation to any crime of violence or drug trafficking crime (including a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime which provides for an enhanced punishment if committed by the use of a deadly or dangerous weapon or device) for which he may be prosecuted in a court of the United States, uses or carries a firearm, shall, in addition to the punishment provided for such crime of violence or drug trafficking crime, be sentenced to imprisonment for five years, and if the firearm is a short-barreled rifle, short-barreled shotgun, or semiautomatic assault weapon, to imprisonment for ten years, and if the firearm is a machinegun, or a destructive device, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, to imprisonment for thirty years. In the case of his second or subsequent conviction under this subsection, such person shall be sentenced to imprisonment for twenty years, and if the firearm is a machinegun, or a destructive device, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, to life imprisonment without release. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall not place on probation or suspend the sentence of any person convicted of a violation of this subsection, nor shall the term of imprisonment imposed under this subsection run concurrently with any other term of imprisonment including that imposed for the crime of violence or drug trafficking crime in which the firearm was used or carried." Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105-386added par. (4). 1996-Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104-294repealed Pub. L. 103-322. See 1994 Amendment note below. Pub. L. 104-294amended directory language of Pub. L. 103-322. See 1994 Amendment note below. Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104-294amended directory language of Pub. L. 103-322. See 1994 Amendment note below. Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 104-294redesignated par. (5), relating to punishment for juveniles, as (6).Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104-294amended directory language of Pub. L. 103-322. See 1994 Amendment note below. Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104-294redesignated subsec. (i), relating to death penalty for gun murders, as (j).Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104-294redesignated subsec. (i) as (j). Former subsec. (j) redesignated (k).Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 104-294inserted closing parenthesis before comma at end.Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104-294redesignated subsec. (j) as (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104-294amended directory language of Pub. L. 103-322. See 1994 Amendment note below. Pub. L. 104-294redesignated subsec. (k) as (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m). Subsecs. (m) to (o). Pub. L. 104-294redesignated subsecs. (l) to (n) as (m) to (o), respectively.1994-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $5,000" in concluding provisions. Pub. L. 103-322amended directory language of Pub. L. 101-647. See 1990 Amendment note below. Pub. L. 103-322which directed the striking of "paragraph (2) or (3) of" in subsec. (a)(1), could not be executed because of prior amendment by Pub. L. 103-159. See 1993 Amendment note below. Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 103-322which directed amendment of subpar. (B) by substituting "(r)" for "(q)", was repealed by Pub. L. 104-294which provided that §330002(h) shall be considered never to have been enacted.Pub. L. 103-322as amended by Pub. L. 104-294struck out "(a)(6)," after "(a)(4),".Pub. L. 103-322which substituted "(v), or (w)" for "or (v)", was repealed by Pub. L. 103-322. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment note below.Pub. L. 103-322which substituted "(r), or (v) of section 922" for "or (q) of section 922", was repealed by Pub. L. 103-322. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment note below.Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103-322as amended by Pub. L. 104-294inserted "(a)(6)," after "subsection".Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $1,000".Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $5,000".Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $1,000" in par. (5) relating to knowing violations of subsec. (s) or (t) of section 922.Pub. L. 103-322added par. (5) relating to punishment for juveniles.Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $10,000".Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103-322amended directory language of Pub. L. 101-647. See 1990 Amendment note below. Pub. L. 103-322which directed the amendment of subsec. (c)(1) by striking "No person sentenced under this subsection shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed under this subsection.", was executed by striking the last sentence, which read "No person sentenced under this subsection shall be eligible for parole during the term of imprisonment imposed herein.", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.Pub. L. 103-322as amended by Pub. L. 104-294temporarily amended subsec. (c)(1) by inserting ", or semiautomatic assault weapon," after "short-barreled shotgun". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1994 Amendment note below. Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "or lapse of or court termination of the restraining order to which he is subject, the seized or relinquished firearms" for "the seized firearms".Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103-322struck out before period at end ", and such person shall not be eligible for parole with respect to the sentence imposed under this subsection". Subsec. (e)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "the Maritime Drug Law Enforcement Act (46 U.S.C. App. 1901 et seq.)" for "the first section or section 3 of Public Law 96-350 ( 21 U.S.C. 955 a et seq.)".Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103-322added subsec. (i) relating to death penalty for gun murders.Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 103-322substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $10,000" in par. (1) of subsec. (i) relating to knowing violations of section 922(u).Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103-322added subsec. (j). Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103-322as amended by Pub. L. 104-294added subsec. (k). Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 103-322added subsec. (l). Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 103-322added subsec. (m). Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 103-322added subsec. (n). 1993-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103-159struck out "paragraph (2) or (3) of" before "this subsection" in introductory provisions.Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103-159added par. (5).Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 103-159added subsec. (i). 1990-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101-647as amended by Pub. L. 103-322substituted "(3) of this subsection" for "3 of this subsection" in introductory provisions.Pub. L. 101-647struck out ", and shall become eligible for parole as the Parole Commission shall determine" before period at end.Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101-647substituted "(k), or (q)" for "or (k)".Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101-647substituted "subsection" for "subsections" and inserted a comma after "10 years".Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101-647struck out ", and shall become eligible for parole as the Parole Commission shall determine" before period at end.Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101-647added par. (4).Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101-647as amended by Pub. L. 103-322struck out "imprisonment for" before "life imprisonment without release".Pub. L. 101-647which directed amendment of first sentence by "inserting 'or a destructive device,' after 'a machinegun,' wherever the term 'machine gun' appears, in section 924(c)(1)", was executed by inserting the new language after "a machinegun," once in the first sentence and once in the second sentence to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Pub. L. 101-647inserted "and if the firearm is a short-barreled rifle, short-barreled shotgun to imprisonment for ten years," after "sentenced to imprisonment for five years,". Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 101-647struck out "and" at end of subpar. (A)(ii) and substituted "; and" for period at end of subpar. (B)(ii). Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 101-647redesignated subsec. (f) relating to punishment for traveling from any State or foreign country into another State to obtain firearms for drug trafficking purposes as subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h). 1988-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100-690in par. (1), inserted "or 3" and substituted ", (c), or (f)" for "or (c)" in introductory provisions and struck out "(g), (i), (j)," after "(f)," in subpar. (B), added par. (2), and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100-690substituted "crime (including a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime which" for "crime,, including a crime of violence or drug trafficking crime, which", "device) for" for "device, for", "crime, be sentenced" for "crime,, be sentenced", and "crime in which" for "crime, or drug trafficking crime in which".Pub. L. 100-690substituted "thirty years. In" for "ten years. In" and "twenty years, and if" for "ten years, and if".Pub. L. 100-690which directed amendment of subsec. (c)(1) by striking "20 years" and inserting "life imprisonment without release" was executed by substituting "life imprisonment without release" for "twenty years" to reflect the probable intent of Congress because "20 years" did not appear.Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100-690amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "For purposes of this subsection, the term 'drug trafficking crime' means any felony violation of Federal law involving the distribution, manufacture, or importation of any controlled substance (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802))."Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100-690inserted "committed on occasions different from one another," after "or both,".Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 100-690inserted ", or any act of juvenile delinquency involving the use or carrying of a firearm, knife, or destructive device that would be punishable by imprisonment for such term if committed by an adult," after "one year".Subsec. (e)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100-690added subpar. (C).Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100-690added subsec. (f) relating to punishment for traveling from any State or foreign country into another State to obtain firearms for drug trafficking purposes.Pub. L. 100-649added subsec. (f) relating to penalty for violating section 922(p).Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100-690added subsec. (g).1986-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-308amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "Whoever violates any provision of this chapter or knowingly makes any false statement or representation with respect to the information required by the provisions of this chapter to be kept in the records of a person licensed under this chapter, or in applying for any license or exemption or relief from disability under the provisions of this chapter, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both, and shall become eligible for parole as the Board of Parole shall determine." Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99-308designated existing provision as par. (1), and substituted "violence or drug trafficking crime," for "violence" in four places and inserted ", and if the firearm is a machinegun, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, to imprisonment for ten years" after "five years", ", and if the firearm is a machinegun, or is equipped with a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, to imprisonment for twenty years" after "ten years", and "or drug trafficking crime" before "in which the firearm was used or carried".Subsec. (c)(2), (3). Pub. L. 99-308added pars. (2) and (3).Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99-308amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "Any firearm or ammunition involved in or used or intended to be used in, any violation of the provisions of this chapter or any rule or regulation promulgated thereunder, or any violation of any other criminal law of the United States, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture and all provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and disposition of firearms, as defined in section 5845(a) of that Code, shall, so far as applicable, extend to seizures and forfeitures under the provisions of this chapter." Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 99-514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954".Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99-308added subsec. (e).Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 99-570substituted "for a violent felony or a serious drug offense, or both" for "for robbery or burglary, or both".Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99-570amended par. (2) generally, substituting provisions defining terms "serious drug offense" and "violent felony" for provisions defining "robbery" and "burglary".1984-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-473which directed amendment of subsec. (a) by striking out ", and shall become eligible for parole as the Board of Parole shall determine" effective Nov. 1, 1987, pursuant to section 235 of Pub. L. 98-473, as amended, could not be executed because quoted language no longer appears due to general amendment of subsec. (a) by Pub. L. 99-308. See 1986 Amendment note above. Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98-473amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions setting forth mandatory, determinate sentence for persons who use or carry firearms during and in relation to any Federal crime of violence for provisions setting out a minimum sentencing scheme for the use or carrying, unlawfully, of a firearm during a Federal felony. 1971-Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91-644, in first sentence, substituted "felony for which he" for "felony which" in items (1) and (2) and inserted ", in addition to the punishment provided for the commission of such felony," before "be sentenced", and in second sentence substituted "for not less than two nor more than twenty-five years" for "for not less than five years nor more than 25 years", inserted "in the case of a second or subsequent conviction" after "suspend the sentence", and prohibited term of imprisonment imposed under this subsec. to run concurrently with any term for commission of the felony.1968-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90-618 inserted provision authorizing the Board of Parole to grant parole to a person convicted under this chapter.Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90-618 inserted "or any ammunition" after "a firearm".Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 90-618 added subsec. (c), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d), and as so redesignated, substituted "section 5845(a) of that Code" for "section 5848(1) of said Code".

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2018 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 115-391Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5222, provided that: "This section [amending this section], and the amendments made by this section, shall apply to any offense that was committed before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], if a sentence for the offense has not been imposed as of such date of enactment."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENT Amendment by section 5(c)(2) of Pub. L. 109-92 effective 180 days after Oct. 26, 2005, see section 5(d) of Pub. L. 109-92, set out as a note under section 922 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 104-2941996, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if the amendments had been included in section 110507 of the Act referred to in paragraph (1) [Pub. L. 103-322] on the date of the enactment of such Act [Sept. 13, 1994]."Pub. L. 104-2941996, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if the amendment had been included in section 110102(c)(2) of the Act referred to in paragraph (1) [Pub. L. 103-322] on the date of the enactment of such Act [Sept. 13, 1994]."

EFFECTIVE AND TERMINATION DATES OF 1994 AMENDMENTAmendment by sections 110102(c) and 110103(c) of Pub. L. 103-322 repealed 10 years after Sept. 13, 1994, see section 110105(2) of Pub. L. 103-322, formerly set out as a note under section 921 of this title. Pub. L. 103-3221994, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of the date on which section 3528 of Pub. L. 101-647 took effect. Pub. L. 103-3221994, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of the date on which section 3527 of Pub. L. 101-647 took effect.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT Amendment by section 1702(b)(3) of Pub. L. 101-647 applicable to conduct engaged in after end of 60-day period beginning on Nov. 29, 1990, see section 1702(b)(4) of Pub. L. 101-647, set out as a note under section 921 of this title. Pub. L. 101-6471990, provided that the amendment by that section is effective with respect to any offense committed after Nov. 1, 1987.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT; SUNSET PROVISIONAmendment by section 2(b) of Pub. L. 100-649 effective 30th day beginning after Nov. 10, 1988, and amendment by section 2(f)(2)(B), (D) effective 35 years after such effective date, see section 2(f) of Pub. L. 100-649, as amended, set out as a note under section 922 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 99-308 effective 180 days after May 19, 1986, see section 110(a) of Pub. L. 99-308, set out as a note under section 921 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT Amendment by section 223(a) of Pub. L. 98-473 effective Nov. 1, 1987, and applicable only to offenses committed after the taking effect of such amendment, see section 235(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98-473, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3551 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1968 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 90-618 effective Dec. 16, 1968, see section 105 of Pub. L. 90-618, set out as a note under section 921 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATESection effective 180 days after June 19, 1968, see section 907 of Pub. L. 90-351, set out as a note under section 921 of this title.

ammunition
The term "ammunition" means ammunition or cartridge cases, primers, bullets, or propellent powder designed for use in any firearm.
armor piercing ammunition
The term "armor piercing ammunition" means- (i) a projectile or projectile core which may be used in a handgun and which is constructed entirely (excluding the presence of traces of other substances) from one or a combination of tungsten alloys, steel, iron, brass, bronze, beryllium copper, or depleted uranium; or (ii) a full jacketed projectile larger than .22 caliber designed and intended for use in a handgun and whose jacket has a weight of more than 25 percent of the total weight of the projectile.
collector
The term "collector" means any person who acquires, holds, or disposes of firearms as curios or relics, as the Attorney General shall by regulation define, and the term "licensed collector" means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter.
dealer
The term "dealer" means (A) any person engaged in the business of selling firearms at wholesale or retail, (B) any person engaged in the business of repairing firearms or of making or fitting special barrels, stocks, or trigger mechanisms to firearms, or (C) any person who is a pawnbroker. The term "licensed dealer" means any dealer who is licensed under the provisions of this chapter.
destructive device
The term "destructive device" means- (A) any explosive, incendiary, or poison gas- (i) bomb, (ii) grenade, (iii) rocket having a propellant charge of more than four ounces, (iv) missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than one-quarter ounce, (v) mine, or (vi) device similar to any of the devices described in the preceding clauses; (B) any type of weapon (other than a shotgun or a shotgun shell which the Attorney General finds is generally recognized as particularly suitable for sporting purposes) by whatever name known which will, or which may be readily converted to, expel a projectile by the action of an explosive or other propellant, and which has any barrel with a bore of more than one-half inch in diameter; and (C) any combination of parts either designed or intended for use in converting any device into any destructive device described in subparagraph (A) or (B) and from which a destructive device may be readily assembled. The term "destructive device" shall not include any device which is neither designed nor redesigned for use as a weapon; any device, although originally designed for use as a weapon, which is redesigned for use as a signaling, pyrotechnic, line throwing, safety, or similar device; surplus ordnance sold, loaned, or given by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to the provisions of section 7684(2), 7685, or 7686 of title 10; or any other device which the Attorney General finds is not likely to be used as a weapon, is an antique, or is a rifle which the owner intends to use solely for sporting, recreational or cultural purposes.
firearm
The term "firearm" means (A) any weapon (including a starter gun) which will or is designed to or may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive; (B) the frame or receiver of any such weapon; (C) any firearm muffler or firearm silencer; or (D) any destructive device. Such term does not include an antique firearm.
handgun
The term "handgun" means- (A) a firearm which has a short stock and is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand; and (B) any combination of parts from which a firearm described in subparagraph (A) can be assembled.
importer
The term "importer" means any person engaged in the business of importing or bringing firearms or ammunition into the United States for purposes of sale or distribution; and the term "licensed importer" means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter.
interstate or foreign commerce
The term "interstate or foreign commerce" includes commerce between any place in a State and any place outside of that State, or within any possession of the United States (not including the Canal Zone) or the District of Columbia, but such term does not include commerce between places within the same State but through any place outside of that State. The term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the possessions of the United States (not including the Canal Zone).
manufacturer
The term "manufacturer" means any person engaged in the business of manufacturing firearms or ammunition for purposes of sale or distribution; and the term "licensed manufacturer" means any such person licensed under the provisions of this chapter.
whoever
The term "person" and the term "whoever" include any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company.
person
The term "person" and the term "whoever" include any individual, corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company.
secure gun storage or safety device
The term "secure gun storage or safety device" means- (A) a device that, when installed on a firearm, is designed to prevent the firearm from being operated without first deactivating the device; (B) a device incorporated into the design of the firearm that is designed to prevent the operation of the firearm by anyone not having access to the device; or (C) a safe, gun safe, gun case, lock box, or other device that is designed to be or can be used to store a firearm and that is designed to be unlocked only by means of a key, a combination, or other similar means.
short-barreled rifle
The term "short-barreled rifle" means a rifle having one or more barrels less than sixteen inches in length and any weapon made from a rifle (whether by alteration, modification, or otherwise) if such weapon, as modified, has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches.
short-barreled shotgun
The term "short-barreled shotgun" means a shotgun having one or more barrels less than eighteen inches in length and any weapon made from a shotgun (whether by alteration, modification or otherwise) if such a weapon as modified has an overall length of less than twenty-six inches.
firearm silencer
The terms "firearm silencer" and "firearm muffler" mean any device for silencing, muffling, or diminishing the report of a portable firearm, including any combination of parts, designed or redesigned, and intended for use in assembling or fabricating a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, and any part intended only for use in such assembly or fabrication.
firearm muffler
The terms "firearm silencer" and "firearm muffler" mean any device for silencing, muffling, or diminishing the report of a portable firearm, including any combination of parts, designed or redesigned, and intended for use in assembling or fabricating a firearm silencer or firearm muffler, and any part intended only for use in such assembly or fabrication.