The Congress finds that-
1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a period.
16 U.S.C. § 1451
AMENDMENTS1990-Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101-508, §6203(a)(1), inserted "habitat areas of the" before "coastal zone". Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101-508, §6203(a)(2), inserted "exclusive economic zone," after "territorial sea,". Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 101-508, §6203(a)(3), added subsecs. (k) to (m).1980-Subsecs. (f) to (j). Pub. L. 96-464, §2(1), (2), added subsec. (f) and redesignated former subsecs. (f) to (i) as (g) to (j), respectively.1976-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94-370, §2(1), inserted "ecological," after "recreational,".Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 94-370, §2(3), added subsec. (i).
SHORT TITLE OF 2020 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 116-223, §1, Dec. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 1067, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1467 of this title and provisions set out as notes under section 1467 of this title] may be cited as the 'Digital Coast Act'."
SHORT TITLE OF 2009 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 111-11, title XII, §125012501,, 123 Stat. 1442, provided that: "This Act [probably should be "subtitle", meaning subtitle E (§§12501, 12502) of title XII of Pub. L. 111-11 enacting sectionof this title] may be cited as the 'Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program Act'."
SHORT TITLE OF 2004 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 108-456, title I, §101, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3630, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred and is set out as a note under sectionof Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
SHORT TITLE OF 1996 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 104-150, §1, June 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1380, provided that: "This Act [enacting section Coastal Zone Protection Act of 1996'."of this title, amending sections , , , , , and of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section of this title] may be cited as the '
SHORT TITLE OF 1990 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 101-508, title VI, §62016201,, 104 Stat. 1388-299, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle C (§§6201-6217) of title VI of Pub. L. 101-508 enacting sections Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990'.", , and of this title, amending this section and sections to , , , and of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section of this title] may be cited as the '
SHORT TITLE OF 1986 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 99-272 title VI, §6041, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 124, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle D (§§6041-6047) of title VI of Pub. L. 99-272, amending sections Coastal Zone Management Reauthorization Act of 1985'.", , , , , and of this title, repealing sections and of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the '
SHORT TITLE OF 1980 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 96-464, §1, Oct. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 2060, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections Coastal Zone Management Improvement Act of 1980'."and of this title, amending this section and sections , , , , , , , , and of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections , , and of this title] may be cited as the '
SHORT TITLE OF 1976 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 94-370, §1, July 26, 1976, 90 Stat. 1013, provided: "That this Act [enacting section Coastal Zone Management Act Amendments of 1976'."of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and sections to of this title, amending this section, sections to and to of this title, and section of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section of Title 15 and section of this title] may be cited as the '
SHORT TITLEPub. L. 89-454, title III, §301, as added by Pub. L. 92-583, Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1280, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972'."
HYPOXIA ASSESSMENT Pub. L. 110-114, title V, §50225022,, 121 Stat. 1203, provided that: "The Secretary [of the Army] may participate with Federal, State, and local agencies, non-Federal and nonprofit entities, regional researchers, and other interested parties to assess hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico."
HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOMS AND HYPOXIA RESEARCH AND CONTROL Pub. L. 108-456, title I, §102 (part), Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3630, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to sectionof Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. Pub. L. 105-383, 112 Stat. 3447, as amended by Pub. L. 108-456, title I, §§102, Dec. 10, 2004 - 105, Dec. 10, 2004, 118 Stat. 3630-3633; Pub. L. 110-161, div. B, title V, §528, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 1930, formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to chapter 53 (§4001 et seq.) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
FINDINGS AND PURPOSE OF COASTAL ZONE ACT REAUTHORIZATION AMENDMENTS OF 1990 Pub. L. 101-508, title VI, §62026202,, 104 Stat. 1388-299, provided that:"(a) FINDINGS.-Congress finds and declares the following:"(1) Our oceans, coastal waters, and estuaries constitute a unique resource. The condition of the water quality in and around the coastal areas is significantly declining. Growing human pressures on the coastal ecosystem will continue to degrade this resource until adequate actions and policies are implemented."(2) Almost one-half of our total population now lives in coastal areas. By 2010, the coastal population will have grown from 80,000,000 in 1960 to 127,000,000 people, an increase of approximately 60 percent, and population density in coastal counties will be among the highest in the Nation."(3) Marine resources contribute to the Nation's economic stability. Commercial and recreational fishery activities support an industry with an estimated value of $12,000,000,000 a year."(4) Wetlands play a vital role in sustaining the coastal economy and environment. Wetlands support and nourish fishery and marine resources. They also protect the Nation's shores from storm and wave damage. Coastal wetlands contribute an estimated $5,000,000,000 to the production of fish and shellfish in the United States coastal waters. Yet, 50 percent of the Nation's coastal wetlands have been destroyed, and more are likely to decline in the near future."(5) Nonpoint source pollution is increasingly recognized as a significant factor in coastal water degradation. In urban areas, storm water and combined sewer overflow are linked to major coastal problems, and in rural areas, run-off from agricultural activities may add to coastal pollution."(6) Coastal planning and development control measures are essential to protect coastal water quality, which is subject to continued ongoing stresses. Currently, not enough is being done to manage and protect our coastal resources. "(7) Global warming results from the accumulation of man-made gases, released into the atmosphere from such activities as the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and the production of chlorofluorocarbons, which trap solar heat in the atmosphere and raise temperatures worldwide. Global warming could result in significant global sea level rise by 2050 resulting from ocean expansion, the melting of snow and ice, and the gradual melting of the polar ice cap. Sea level rise will result in the loss of natural resources such as beaches, dunes, estuaries, and wetlands, and will contribute to the salinization of drinking water supplies. Sea level rise will also result in damage to properties, infrastructures, and public works. There is a growing need to plan for sea level rise."(8) There is a clear link between coastal water quality and land use activities along the shore. State management programs under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 ( 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.) are among the best tools for protecting coastal resources and must play a larger role, particularly in improving coastal zone water quality."(9) All coastal States should have coastal zone management programs in place that conform to the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended by this Act."(b) PURPOSE.-It is the purpose of Congress in this subtitle [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note above] to enhance the effectiveness of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 [ 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seq.] by increasing our understanding of the coastal environment and expanding the ability of State coastal zone management programs to address coastal environmental problems."
ESTABLISHMENT OF POSITIONS AND FIXING OF COMPENSATION BY SECRETARY OF COMMERCE; APPOINTMENTS Pub. L. 94-370, §15(c), July 26, 1976, 90 Stat. 1032, related to establishment and compensation of four new positions without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99-272, title VI, §6045(3), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 127.
TERRITORIAL SEA OF UNITED STATES For extension of territorial sea of United States, see Proc. No. 5928, set out as a note under sectionof Title 43, Public Lands.
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 13554Ex. Ord. No. 13554, Oct. 5, 2010, 75 F.R. 62313, which established the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Restoration Task Force, was revoked, concurrent with the termination of the Task Force, by Ex. Ord. No. 13626, §6(d), Sept. 10, 2012, 77 F.R. 56752, set out as a note under sectionof Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
- The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Commerce.
- coastal waters
- The term "coastal waters" means (A) in the Great Lakes area, the waters within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States consisting of the Great Lakes, their connecting waters, harbors, roadsteads, and estuary-type areas such as bays, shallows, and marshes and (B) in other areas, those waters, adjacent to the shorelines, which contain a measurable quantity or percentage of sea water, including, but not limited to, sounds, bays, lagoons, bayous, ponds, and estuaries.
- coastal zone
- The term "coastal zone" means the coastal waters (including the lands therein and thereunder) and the adjacent shorelands (including the waters therein and thereunder), strongly influenced by each other and in proximity to the shorelines of the several coastal states, and includes islands, transitional and intertidal areas, salt marshes, wetlands, and beaches. The zone extends, in Great Lakes waters, to the international boundary between the United States and Canada and, in other areas, seaward to the outer limit of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act ( 43 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 ( 48 U.S.C. 749 ) [ 48 U.S.C. 731 et seq.], the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 [ 48 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.], or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 ( 48 U.S.C. 1705 ), as applicable. The zone extends inland from the shorelines only to the extent necessary to control shorelands, the uses of which have a direct and significant impact on the coastal waters, and to control those geographical areas which are likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise. Excluded from the coastal zone are lands the use of which is by law subject solely to the discretion of or which is held in trust by the Federal Government, its officers or agents.
- land use
- The term "land use" means activities which are conducted in, or on the shorelands within, the coastal zone, subject to the requirements outlined in section 1456(g) of this title.
- water use
- The term "water use" means a use, activity, or project conducted in or on waters within the coastal zone.1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a colon.2 See References in Text note below.