Every person who, by or through stock ownership, agency, or otherwise, or who, pursuant to or in connection with an agreement or understanding with one or more other persons by or through stock ownership, agency, or otherwise, controls any person liable under sectionsor of this title, shall also be liable jointly and severally with and to the same extent as such controlled person to any person to whom such controlled person is liable, unless the controlling person had no knowledge of or reasonable ground to believe in the existence of the facts by reason of which the liability of the controlled person is alleged to exist.
For purposes of any action brought by the Commission under subparagraph (b) or (d) of sectionof this title, any person that knowingly or recklessly provides substantial assistance to another person in violation of a provision of this subchapter, or of any rule or regulation issued under this subchapter, shall be deemed to be in violation of such provision to the same extent as the person to whom such assistance is provided.
15 U.S.C. § 77o
AMENDMENTS2010- Pub. L. 111-203 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).1934-Act June 6, 1934, exempted from liability controlling persons having no knowledge or reasonable grounds for belief.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2010 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 111-203 effective 1 day after July 21, 2010, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 111-203 set out as an Effective Date note under sectionof Title 12, Banks and Banking.