11 U.S.C. § 341
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTSSection 341(c) of the Senate amendment is deleted and a contrary provision is added indicating that the bankruptcy judge will not preside at or attend the first meeting of creditors or equity security holders but a discharge hearing for all individuals will be held at which the judge will preside.
SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989Section [Subsection] (a) of this section requires that there be a meeting of creditors within a reasonable time after the order for relief in the case. The Bankruptcy Act [former title 11] and the current Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure provide for a meeting of creditors, and specify the time and manner of the meeting, and the business to be conducted. This bill leaves those matters to the rules. Under section 405(d) of the bill, the present rules will continue to govern until new rules are promulgated. Thus, pending the adoption of different rules, the present procedure for the meeting will continue.Subsection (b) authorizes the court to order a meeting of equity security holders in cases where such a meeting would be beneficial or useful, for example, in a chapter 11 reorganization case where it may be necessary for the equity security holders to organize in order to be able to participate in the negotiation of a plan of reorganization.Subsection (c) makes clear that the bankruptcy judge is to preside at the meeting of creditors.
AMENDMENTS2005-Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109-8, §413, inserted at end "Notwithstanding any local court rule, provision of a State constitution, any otherwise applicable nonbankruptcy law, or any other requirement that representation at the meeting of creditors under subsection (a) be by an attorney, a creditor holding a consumer debt or any representative of the creditor (which may include an entity or an employee of an entity and may be a representative for more than 1 creditor) shall be permitted to appear at and participate in the meeting of creditors in a case under chapter 7 or 13, either alone or in conjunction with an attorney for the creditor. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require any creditor to be represented by an attorney at any meeting of creditors."Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109-8, §402, added subsec. (e).1994-Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-394 added subsec. (d).1986-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-554, §212(1), substituted "the United States trustee shall convene and preside at a meeting of creditors" for "there shall be a meeting of creditors".Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99-554, §212(2), substituted "United States trustee may convene" for "court may order".Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-554, §212(3), inserted "including any final meeting of creditors".
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENTEffective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554 set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
PARTICIPATION BY BANKRUPTCY ADMINISTRATOR AT MEETINGS OF CREDITORS AND EQUITY SECURITY HOLDERS Pub. L. 103-394, title I, §105, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4111, provided that:"(a) PRESIDING OFFICER.-A bankruptcy administrator appointed under section 302(d)(3)(I) of the Bankruptcy Judges, United States Trustees, and Family Farmer Bankruptcy Act of 1986 ( 28 U.S.C. 581 note; Public Law 99-554; 100 Stat. 3123), as amended by section 317(a) of the Federal Courts Study Committee Implementation Act of 1990 ( Public Law 101-650; 104 Stat. 5115), or the bankruptcy administrator's designee may preside at the meeting of creditors convened under section 341(a) of title 11, United States Code. The bankruptcy administrator or the bankruptcy administrator's designee may preside at any meeting of equity security holders convened under section 341(b) of title 11, United States Code."(b) EXAMINATION OF THE DEBTOR.-The bankruptcy administrator or the bankruptcy administrator's designee may examine the debtor at the meeting of creditors and may administer the oath required under section of title 11, United States Code."
- The term "attorney" means attorney, professional law association, corporation, or partnership, authorized under applicable law to practice law.(4A) The term "bankruptcy assistance" means any goods or services sold or otherwise provided to an assisted person with the express or implied purpose of providing information, advice, counsel, document preparation, or filing, or attendance at a creditors' meeting or appearing in a case or proceeding on behalf of another or providing legal representation with respect to a case or proceeding under this title.
- consumer debt
- The term "consumer debt" means debt incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose.
- The term "debt" means liability on a claim.(12A) The term "debt relief agency" means any person who provides any bankruptcy assistance to an assisted person in return for the payment of money or other valuable consideration, or who is a bankruptcy petition preparer under section 110, but does not include-(A) any person who is an officer, director, employee, or agent of a person who provides such assistance or of the bankruptcy petition preparer;(B) a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;(C) a creditor of such assisted person, to the extent that the creditor is assisting such assisted person to restructure any debt owed by such assisted person to the creditor;(D) a depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) or any Federal credit union or State credit union (as those terms are defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act), or any affiliate or subsidiary of such depository institution or credit union; or(E) an author, publisher, distributor, or seller of works subject to copyright protection under title 17, when acting in such capacity.
- The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced.(13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"-(A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and(B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.
- The term "entity" includes person, estate, trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
- equity security
- The term "equity security" means-(A) share in a corporation, whether or not transferable or denominated "stock", or similar security;(B) interest of a limited partner in a limited partnership; or(C) warrant or right, other than a right to convert, to purchase, sell, or subscribe to a share, security, or interest of a kind specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of this paragraph.
- family farmer
- The term "family farmer" means-(A) individual or individual and spouse engaged in a farming operation whose aggregate debts do not exceed $10,000,000 and not less than 50 percent of whose aggregate noncontingent, liquidated debts (excluding a debt for the principal residence of such individual or such individual and spouse unless such debt arises out of a farming operation), on the date the case is filed, arise out of a farming operation owned or operated by such individual or such individual and spouse, and such individual or such individual and spouse receive from such farming operation more than 50 percent of such individual's or such individual and spouse's gross income for-(i) the taxable year preceding; or(ii) each of the 2d and 3d taxable years preceding;the taxable year in which the case concerning such individual or such individual and spouse was filed; or(B) corporation or partnership in which more than 50 percent of the outstanding stock or equity is held by one family, or by one family and the relatives of the members of such family, and such family or such relatives conduct the farming operation, and(i) more than 80 percent of the value of its assets consists of assets related to the farming operation;(ii) its aggregate debts do not exceed $10,000,000 and not less than 50 percent of its aggregate noncontingent, liquidated debts (excluding a debt for one dwelling which is owned by such corporation or partnership and which a shareholder or partner maintains as a principal residence, unless such debt arises out of a farming operation), on the date the case is filed, arise out of the farming operation owned or operated by such corporation or such partnership; and(iii) if such corporation issues stock, such stock is not publicly traded.
- The term "petition" means petition filed under section 301, 302, 303 and 3 1504 of this title, as the case may be, commencing a case under this title.(42A) The term "production payment" means a term overriding royalty satisfiable in cash or in kind-(A) contingent on the production of a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon from particular real property; and(B) from a specified volume, or a specified value, from the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon produced from such property, and determined without regard to production costs.