the plan may not provide for payments over a period that is longer than 5 years.
the plan may not provide for payments over a period that is longer than 3 years, unless the court, for cause, approves a longer period, but the court may not approve a period that is longer than 5 years.
11 U.S.C. § 1322
Pub. L. 95-598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2648; Pub. L. 98-353, title III, §§316, 528, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 356, 389; Pub. L. 103-394, title III, §§301, Oct. 22, 1994, 305, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4131, 4134; Pub. L. 109-8, title II, §§213(8), (9), 224, title III, §318(1), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 53, 65, 93; Pub. L. 111-327, §2(a)(43), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3562.
Adjustment of Dollar Amounts For adjustment of certain dollar amounts specified in this section, that is not reflected in text, see Adjustment of Dollar Amounts note below.
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTS Section 1322(b)(2) of the House amendment represents a compromise agreement between similar provisions in the House bill and Senate amendment. Under the House amendment, the plan may modify the rights of holders of secured claims other than a claim secured by a security interest in real property that is the debtor's principal residence. It is intended that a claim secured by the debtor's principal residence may be treated with under section 1322(b)(5) of the House amendment.Section 1322(c) adopts a 5-year period derived from the House bill in preference to a 4-year period contained in the Senate amendment. A conforming change is made in section 1329(c) adopting the provision in the House bill in preference to a comparable provision in the Senate amendment.Tax payments in wage earner plans: The House bill provided that a wage earner plan had to provide that all priority claims would be paid in full. The Senate amendment contained a special rule in section 1325(c) requiring that Federal tax claims must be paid in cash, but that such tax claims can be paid in deferred cash installments under the general rules applicable to the payment of debts in a wage earner plan, unless the Internal Revenue Service negotiates with the debtor for some different medium or time for payment of the tax liability.The House bill adopts the substance of the Senate amendment rule under section 1322(a)(2) of the House amendment. A wage earner plan must provide for full payment in deferred cash payments, of all priority claims, unless the holder of a particular claim agrees with a different treatment of such claim.
SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989 Chapter 13 is designed to serve as a flexible vehicle for the repayment of part or all of the allowed claims of the debtor. Section 1322 emphasizes that purpose by fixing a minimum of mandatory plan provisions.Subsection (a) requires that the plan submit whatever portion of the future income of the debtor is necessary to implement the plan to the control of the trustee, mandates payment in full of all section 507 priority claims, and requires identical treatment for all claims of a particular class.Subsection (b) permits a chapter 13 plan to (1) divide unsecured claims not entitled to priority under section 507 into classes in the manner authorized for chapter 11 claims; (2) modify the rights of holders of secured and unsecured claims, except claims wholly secured by real estate mortgages; (3) cure or waive any default; (4) propose payments on unsecured claims concurrently with payments on any secured claim or any other class of unsecured claims; (5) provide for curing any default on any secured or unsecured claim on which the final payment is due after the proposed final payment under the plan; (6) provide for payment of any allowed postpetition claim; (7) assume or reject any previously unrejected executory contract or unexpired lease of the debtor; (8) propose the payment of all or any part of any claim from property of the estate or of the debtor; (9) provide for the vesting of property of the estate; and (10) include any other provision not inconsistent with other provisions of title 11.Subsection (c) limits the payment period under the plan to 3 years, except that a 4-year payment period may be permitted by the court.
AMENDMENTS 2010-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111-327, §2(a)(43)(A), struck out "shall" after "plan" in introductory provisions. Subsec. (a)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 111-327, §2(a)(43)(B)-(D), inserted "shall" before "provide".Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 111-327, §2(a)(43)(E), struck out "a plan" before "may provide".2005-Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109-8, §213(8), added par. (4).Subsec. (b)(10), (11). Pub. L. 109-8, §213(9), added par. (10) and redesignated former par. (10) as (11).Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109-8, §318(1), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "The plan may not provide for payments over a period that is longer than three years, unless the court, for cause, approves a longer period, but the court may not approve a period that is longer than five years." Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109-8, §224(d), added subsec. (f).1994-Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 103-394, §301, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103-394, §305(c), added subsec. (e).1984-Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, §528(a), inserted a comma after "payments".Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, §316, inserted "; however, such plan may treat claims for a consumer debt of the debtor if an individual is liable on such consumer debt with the debtor differently than other unsecured claims".Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, §528(b)(1), inserted ", or leave unaffected the rights of the holders of any class of claims". Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98-353, §528(b)(2), inserted "other" after "claim or any".Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 98-353, §528(b)(3), inserted "subject to section of this title," before "provide", substituted ", rejection, or assignment" for "or rejection", and substituted "under such section" for "under section of this title". Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 98-353, §528(b)(4), struck out "any" before "part of a claim".
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENT Amendment by section 301 of Pub. L. 103-394effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, and amendment by section 305(c) of Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and applicable only to agreements entered into after Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENT Amendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
ADJUSTMENT OF DOLLAR AMOUNTS The dollar amounts specified in this section were adjusted by notices of the Judicial Conference of the United States pursuant to sectionof this title as follows:By notice dated Feb. 16, 2016, 81 F.R. 8748, effective Apr. 1, 2016, in subsec. (d), dollar amount "675" was adjusted to "700" each time it appeared. See notice of the Judicial Conference of the United States set out as a note under section of this title. By notice dated Feb. 12, 2013, 78 F.R. 12089, effective Apr. 1, 2013, in subsec. (d), dollar amount "625" was adjusted to "675" each time it appeared.By notice dated Feb. 19, 2010, 75 F.R. 8747, effective Apr. 1, 2010, in subsec. (d)(1)(C), (2)(C), dollar amount "575" was adjusted to "625".By notice dated Feb. 7, 2007, 72 F.R. 7082, effective Apr. 1, 2007, in subsec. (d), dollar amount "525" was adjusted to "575" each time it appeared.
- The term "claim" means- (A) right to payment, whether or not such right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured; or (B) right to an equitable remedy for breach of performance if such breach gives rise to a right to payment, whether or not such right to an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, secured, or unsecured.
- consumer debt
- The term "consumer debt" means debt incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose.
- The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced. (13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"- (A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and (B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.
- The term "entity" includes person, estate, trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
- The term "lien" means charge against or interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation.
- median family income
- The term "median family income" means for any year- (A) the median family income both calculated and reported by the Bureau of the Census in the then most recent year; and (B) if not so calculated and reported in the then current year, adjusted annually after such most recent year until the next year in which median family income is both calculated and reported by the Bureau of the Census, to reflect the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers during the period of years occurring after such most recent year and before such current year.
- The term "petition" means petition filed under section 301, 302, 303 and 2 1504 of this title, as the case may be, commencing a case under this title. (42A) The term "production payment" means a term overriding royalty satisfiable in cash or in kind- (A) contingent on the production of a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon from particular real property; and (B) from a specified volume, or a specified value, from the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon produced from such property, and determined without regard to production costs.
- security interest
- The term "security interest" means lien created by an agreement. (51A) The term "settlement payment" means, for purposes of the forward contract provisions of this title, a preliminary settlement payment, a partial settlement payment, an interim settlement payment, a settlement payment on account, a final settlement payment, a net settlement payment, or any other similar payment commonly used in the forward contract trade. (51B) The term "single asset real estate" means real property constituting a single property or project, other than residential real property with fewer than 4 residential units, which generates substantially all of the gross income of a debtor who is not a family farmer and on which no substantial business is being conducted by a debtor other than the business of operating the real property and activities incidental thereto. (51C) The term "small business case" means a case filed under chapter 11 of this title in which the debtor is a small business debtor. (51D) The term "small business debtor"- (A) subject to subparagraph (B), means a person engaged in commercial or business activities (including any affiliate of such person that is also a debtor under this title and excluding a person whose primary activity is the business of owning or operating real property or activities incidental thereto) that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts as of the date of the filing of the petition or the date of the order for relief in an amount not more than $2,000,000 (excluding debts owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders) for a case in which the United States trustee has not appointed under section 1102(a)(1) a committee of unsecured creditors or where the court has determined that the committee of unsecured creditors is not sufficiently active and representative to provide effective oversight of the debtor; and (B) does not include any member of a group of affiliated debtors that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts in an amount greater than $2,000,000 (excluding debt owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders).