11 U.S.C. § 1123
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTSSection 1123 of the House amendment represents a compromise between similar provisions in the House bill and Senate amendment. The section has been clarified to clearly indicate that both secured and unsecured claims, or either of them, may be impaired in a case under title 11. In addition assumption or rejection of an executory contract under a plan must comply with sectionof title 11. Moreover, section 1123(a)(1) has been substantively modified to permit classification of certain kinds of priority claims. This is important for purposes of confirmation under section 1129(a)(9).Section 1123(a)(5) of the House amendment is derived from a similar provision in the House bill and Senate amendment but deletes the language pertaining to "fair upset price" as an unnecessary restriction. Section 1123 is also intended to indicate that a plan may provide for any action specified in section 1123 in the case of a corporation without a resolution of the board of directors. If the plan is confirmed, then any action proposed in the plan may be taken notwithstanding any otherwise applicable nonbankruptcy law in accordance with section of title 11.
SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989Subsection (a) specifies what a plan of reorganization must contain. The plan must designate classes of claims and interests, and specify, by class, the claims or interests that are unimpaired under the plan. Priority claims are not required to be classified because they may not have arisen when the plan is filed. The plan must provide the same treatment for each claim or interest of a particular class, unless the holder of a particular claim or interest agrees to a different, but not better, treatment of his claim or interest.Paragraph (3) applies to claims, not creditors. Thus, if a creditor is undersecured, and thus has a secured claim and an unsecured claim, this paragraph will be applied independently to each of his claims.Paragraph (4) of subsection (a) is derived from section 216 of chapter X [section 616 of former title 11] with some modifications. It requires the plan to provide adequate means for the plans execution. These means may include retention by the debtor of all or any part of the property of the estate, transfer of all or any part of the property of the estate to one or more entities, whether organized pre- or postconfirmation, merger or consolidation of the debtor with one or more persons, sale and distribution of all or any part of the property of the estate, satisfaction or modification of any lien, cancellation or modification of any indenture or similar instrument, curing or waiving of any default, extension of maturity dates or change in interest rates of securities, amendment of the debtor's charter, and issuance of securities.Subparagraph (C), as it applies in railroad cases, has the effect of overruling St. Joe Paper Co. v. Atlantic Coast Line R. R., 347 U.S. 298 (1954). It will allow the trustee or creditors to propose a plan of merger with another railroad without the consent of the debtor, and the debtor will be bound under proposed . See Hearings, pt. 3, at 1616. "Similar instrument" referred to in subparagraph (F) might include a deposit with an agent for distribution, other than an indenture trustee, such as an agent under an agreement in a railroad conditional sale or lease financing agreement.Paragraphs (5) and (6) and subsection (b) are derived substantially from Section 216 of Chapter X ([former] 11 U.S.C. 616 ). Paragraph (5) requires the plan to prohibit the issuance of nonvoting equity securities, and to provide for an appropriate distribution of voting power among the various classes of equity securities. Paragraph (6) requires that the plan contain only provisions that are consistent with the interests of creditors and equity security holders, and with public policy with respect to the selection of officers, directors, and trustees, and their successors.Subsection (b) specifies the matters that the plan may propose. The plan may impair or leave unimpaired any claim or interest. The plan may provide for the assumption or rejection of executory contracts or unexpired leases not previously rejected under section 365. The plan may also provide for the treatment of claims by the debtor against other entities that are not settled before the confirmation of the plan. The plan may propose settlement or adjustment of any claim or equity security belonging to the estate, or may propose retention and enforcement of such claim or interest by the debtor or by an agent appointed for that purpose.The plan may also propose the sale of all or substantially all of the property of the estate, and the distribution of the proceeds of the sale among creditors and equity security holders. This would be a liquidating plan. The subsection permits the plan to include any other appropriate provision not inconsistent with the applicable provisions of the bankruptcy code.Subsection (c) protects an individual debtor's exempt property by prohibiting its use, sale, or lease under a plan proposed by someone other than the debtor, unless the debtor consents.
AMENDMENTS2005-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109-8, §1502(a)(7), substituted "507(a)(2), 507(a)(3)" for "507(a)(1), 507(a)(2)".Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 109-8, §321(b), added par. (8).1994-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103-394, §§304(h)(6), 501, substituted "507(a)(8) of this title," for "507(a)(7) of this title".Subsec. (b)(5), (6). Pub. L. 103-394, §206, added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103-394, §305(a), added subsec. (d).1984-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98-353, §507(a)(1), in provisions preceding par. (1) substituted "Notwithstanding any otherwise applicable nonbankruptcy law, a" for "A".Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98-353, §507(a)(2), inserted a comma after "classes of claims" and substituted "507(a)(7) of this title," for "507(a)(6) of this title".Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, §507(a)(3), struck out "shall" before "specify the treatment".Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 98-353, §507(a)(4), substituted "implementation" for "execution".Subsec. (a)(5)(G). Pub. L. 98-353, §507(a)(5), inserted "of" after "waiving".Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, §507(b), substituted "rejection, or assignment" for "or rejection", and "under such section" for "under sectionof this title".
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENTAmendment by sections 206, 304(h)(6), and 501(d)(31) of Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, and amendment by section 305(a) of Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and applicable only to agreements entered into after Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
- The term "claim" means-(A) right to payment, whether or not such right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured; or(B) right to an equitable remedy for breach of performance if such breach gives rise to a right to payment, whether or not such right to an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, secured, or unsecured.
- The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced.(13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"-(A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and(B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.
- The term "entity" includes person, estate, trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
- equity security
- The term "equity security" means-(A) share in a corporation, whether or not transferable or denominated "stock", or similar security;(B) interest of a limited partner in a limited partnership; or(C) warrant or right, other than a right to convert, to purchase, sell, or subscribe to a share, security, or interest of a kind specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of this paragraph.
- indenture trustee
- The term "indenture trustee" means trustee under an indenture.
- The term "indenture" means mortgage, deed of trust, or indenture, under which there is outstanding a security, other than a voting-trust certificate, constituting a claim against the debtor, a claim secured by a lien on any of the debtor's property, or an equity security of the debtor.
- The term "lien" means charge against or interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation.
- The term "railroad" means common carrier by railroad engaged in the transportation of individuals or property or owner of trackage facilities leased by such a common carrier.
- security interest
- The term "security interest" means lien created by an agreement.(51A) The term "settlement payment" means, for purposes of the forward contract provisions of this title, a preliminary settlement payment, a partial settlement payment, an interim settlement payment, a settlement payment on account, a final settlement payment, a net settlement payment, or any other similar payment commonly used in the forward contract trade.(51B) The term "single asset real estate" means real property constituting a single property or project, other than residential real property with fewer than 4 residential units, which generates substantially all of the gross income of a debtor who is not a family farmer and on which no substantial business is being conducted by a debtor other than the business of operating the real property and activities incidental thereto.(51C) The term "small business case" means a case filed under chapter 11 of this title in which the debtor is a small business debtor and has not elected that subchapter V of chapter 11 of this title shall apply.(51D) The term "small business debtor"-(A) subject to subparagraph (B), means a person engaged in commercial or business activities (including any affiliate of such person that is also a debtor under this title and excluding a person whose primary activity is the business of owning single asset real estate) that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts as of the date of the filing of the petition or the date of the order for relief in an amount not more than $2,000,000 1 (excluding debts owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders) not less than 50 percent of which arose from the commercial or business activities of the debtor; and(B) does not include-(i) any member of a group of affiliated debtors that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts in an amount greater than $2,000,000 1 (excluding debt owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders);(ii) any debtor that is a corporation subject to the reporting requirements under section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 15 U.S.C. 78m, 78o(d) ); or(iii) any debtor that is an affiliate of an issuer (as defined in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 15 U.S.C. 78c )).
- The term "transfer" means-(A) the creation of a lien;(B) the retention of title as a security interest;(C) the foreclosure of a debtor's equity of redemption; or(D) each mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with-(i) property; or(ii) an interest in property.(54A) The term "uninsured State member bank" means a State member bank (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) the deposits of which are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.