11 U.S.C. § 1102
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTSSection 1102(a) of the House amendment adopts a compromise between the House bill and Senate amendment requiring appointment of a committee of creditors holding unsecured claims by the court; the alternative of creditor committee election is rejected.Section 1102(b) of the House amendment represents a compromise between the House bill and the Senate amendment by preventing the appointment of creditors who are unwilling to serve on a creditors committee.
SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989This section provides for the election and appointment of committees. Subsection (c) provides that this section does not apply in case of a public company, as to which a trustee, appointed under section 1104(a) will have responsibility to administer the estate and to formulate a plan as provided in section 1106(a).There is no need for the election or appointment of committees for which the appointment of a trustee is mandatory. In the case of a public company there are likely to be several committees, each representing a different class of security holders and seeking authority to retain accountants, lawyers, and other experts, who will expect to be paid. If in the case of a public company creditors or stockholders wish to organize committees, they may do so, as authorized under section 1109(a). Compensation and reimbursement will be allowed for contributions to the reorganization pursuant to section 503(b) (3) and (4).
HOUSE REPORT NO. 95-595This section provides for the appointment of creditors' and equity security holders' committees, which will be the primary negotiating bodies for the formulation of the plan of reorganization. They will represent the various classes of creditors and equity security holders from which they are selected. They will also provide supervision of the debtor in possession and of the trustee, and will protect their constituents' interests.Subsection (a) requires the court to appoint at least one committee. That committee is to be composed of creditors holding unsecured claims. The court is authorized to appoint such additional committees as are necessary to assure adequate representation of creditors and equity security holders. The provision will be relied upon in cases in which the debtor proposes to affect several classes of debt or equity holders under the plan, and in which they need representation.Subsection (b) contains precatory language directing the court to appoint the persons holding the seven largest claims against the debtor of the kinds represented on a creditors' committee, or the members of a prepetition committee organized by creditors before the order for relief under chapter 11. The court may continue prepetition committee members only if the committee was fairly chosen and is representative of the different kinds of claims to be represented. The court is restricted to the appointment of persons in order to exclude governmental holders of claims or interests.Paragraph (2) of subsection (b) requires similar treatment for equity security holders' committees. The seven largest holders are normally to be appointed, but the language is only precatory.Subsection (c) authorizes the court, on request of a party in interest, to change the size or the membership of a creditors' or equity security holders' committee if the membership of the committee is not representative of the different kinds of claims or interests to be represented. This subsection is intended, along with the nonbinding nature of subsection (b), to afford the court latitude in appointing a committee that is manageable and representative in light of the circumstances of the case.
REFERENCES IN TEXTSection 3(a)(1) of the Small Business Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is classified to sectionof Title 15, Commerce and Trade.
AMENDMENTS2019-Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 116-54 added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "On request of a party in interest in a case in which the debtor is a small business debtor and for cause, the court may order that a committee of creditors not be appointed."2005-Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109-8, §432(b), inserted "debtor" after "small business".Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 109-8, §405(a), added par. (4).Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109-8, §405(b), added par. (3).1994-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103-394 substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (3), as" for "As" in par. (1) and added par. (3).1986-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99-554, §221(1), amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting "chapter 11 of this title, the United States trustee shall appoint a committee of creditors holding unsecured claims and may appoint additional committees of creditors or of equity security holders as the United States trustee deems appropriate" for "this chapter, the court shall appoint a committee of creditors holding unsecured claims" in par. (1) and "United States trustee" for "court" in par. (2).Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99-554, §221(2), struck out subsec. (c) which read as follows: "On request of a party in interest and after notice and a hearing, the court may change the membership or the size of a committee appointed under subsection (a) of this section if the membership of such committee is not representative of the different kinds of claims or interests to be represented."1984-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-353 substituted "commencement of the case" for "order for relief".
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2019 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 116-54 effective 180 days after Aug. 23, 2019, see section 5 of Pub. L. 116-54 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENTEffective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 99-554 dependent upon the judicial district involved, see section 302(d), (e) of Pub. L. 99-554 set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
- The term "debt" means liability on a claim.(12A) The term "debt relief agency" means any person who provides any bankruptcy assistance to an assisted person in return for the payment of money or other valuable consideration, or who is a bankruptcy petition preparer under section 110, but does not include-(A) any person who is an officer, director, employee, or agent of a person who provides such assistance or of the bankruptcy petition preparer;(B) a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;(C) a creditor of such assisted person, to the extent that the creditor is assisting such assisted person to restructure any debt owed by such assisted person to the creditor;(D) a depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) or any Federal credit union or State credit union (as those terms are defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act), or any affiliate or subsidiary of such depository institution or credit union; or(E) an author, publisher, distributor, or seller of works subject to copyright protection under title 17, when acting in such capacity.
- The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced.(13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"-(A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and(B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.
- equity security
- The term "equity security" means-(A) share in a corporation, whether or not transferable or denominated "stock", or similar security;(B) interest of a limited partner in a limited partnership; or(C) warrant or right, other than a right to convert, to purchase, sell, or subscribe to a share, security, or interest of a kind specified in subparagraph (A) or (B) of this paragraph.
- small business case
- The term "small business case" means a case filed under chapter 11 of this title in which the debtor is a small business debtor and has not elected that subchapter V of chapter 11 of this title shall apply.