11 U.S.C. § 107

Current through P.L. 116-344 (published on www.congress.gov on 01/13/2021), except for [P. L. 116-283]
Section 107 - Public access to papers
(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) and subject to section 112, a paper filed in a case under this title and the dockets of a bankruptcy court are public records and open to examination by an entity at reasonable times without charge.
(b) On request of a party in interest, the bankruptcy court shall, and on the bankruptcy court's own motion, the bankruptcy court may-
(1) protect an entity with respect to a trade secret or confidential research, development, or commercial information; or
(2) protect a person with respect to scandalous or defamatory matter contained in a paper filed in a case under this title.
(1) The bankruptcy court, for cause, may protect an individual, with respect to the following types of information to the extent the court finds that disclosure of such information would create undue risk of identity theft or other unlawful injury to the individual or the individual's property:
(A) Any means of identification (as defined in section 1028(d) of title 18) contained in a paper filed, or to be filed, in a case under this title.
(B) Other information contained in a paper described in subparagraph (A).
(2) Upon ex parte application demonstrating cause, the court shall provide access to information protected pursuant to paragraph (1) to an entity acting pursuant to the police or regulatory power of a domestic governmental unit.
(3) The United States trustee, bankruptcy administrator, trustee, and any auditor serving under section 586(f) of title 28-
(A) shall have full access to all information contained in any paper filed or submitted in a case under this title; and
(B) shall not disclose information specifically protected by the court under this title.

11 U.S.C. § 107

Pub. L. 95-598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2556; Pub. L. 109-8, title II, §§233(c), Apr. 20, 2005, 234, Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 74, 75; Pub. L. 111-327, §2(a)(5), Dec. 22, 2010, 124 Stat. 3557.


SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989Subsection (a) of this section makes all papers filed in a bankruptcy case and the dockets of the bankruptcy court public and open to examination at reasonable times without charge. "Docket" includes the claims docket, the proceedings docket, and all papers filed in a case.Subsection (b) permits the court, on its own motion, and requires the court, on the request of a party in interest, to protect trade secrets, confidential research, development, or commercial information, and to protect persons against scandalous or defamatory matter.


AMENDMENTS2010-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 111-327 substituted "subsections (b) and (c)" for "subsection (b) of this section".2005-Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109-8, §234(c), which directed the substitution of "subsections (b) and (c)," for "subsection (b),", could not be executed because "subsection (b)," did not appear in text. Pub. L. 109-8, §233(c), inserted "and subject to section 112" after "section".Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109-8, §234(a), added subsec. (c).


EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

The term "entity" includes person, estate, trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
governmental unit
The term "governmental unit" means United States; State; Commonwealth; District; Territory; municipality; foreign state; department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States (but not a United States trustee while serving as a trustee in a case under this title), a State, a Commonwealth, a District, a Territory, a municipality, or a foreign state; or other foreign or domestic government.(27A) The term "health care business"-(A) means any public or private entity (without regard to whether that entity is organized for profit or not for profit) that is primarily engaged in offering to the general public facilities and services for-(i) the diagnosis or treatment of injury, deformity, or disease; and(ii) surgical, drug treatment, psychiatric, or obstetric care; and(B) includes-(i) any-(I) general or specialized hospital;(II) ancillary ambulatory, emergency, or surgical treatment facility;(III) hospice;(IV) home health agency; and(V) other health care institution that is similar to an entity referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV); and(ii) any long-term care facility, including any-(I) skilled nursing facility;(II) intermediate care facility;(III) assisted living facility;(IV) home for the aged;(V) domiciliary care facility; and(VI) health care institution that is related to a facility referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), or (V), if that institution is primarily engaged in offering room, board, laundry, or personal assistance with activities of daily living and incidentals to activities of daily living.(27B) The term "incidental property" means, with respect to a debtor's principal residence-(A) property commonly conveyed with a principal residence in the area where the real property is located;(B) all easements, rights, appurtenances, fixtures, rents, royalties, mineral rights, oil or gas rights or profits, water rights, escrow funds, or insurance proceeds; and(C) all replacements or additions.