Current through 2022 Legislative Session
Section 14-10-107 - Commencement - pleadings - abolition of existing defenses - automatic, temporary injunction - enforcement(1) All proceedings under this article shall be commenced in the manner provided by the Colorado rules of civil procedure.(2) The petition in a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or legal separation shall allege that the marriage is irretrievably broken and shall set forth: (a) The residence of each party and the length of residence in this state;(b) The date and place of the marriage;(c) The date on which the parties separated;(d) The names, ages, and addresses of any living children of the marriage and whether the wife is pregnant;(e) Any arrangements as to the allocation of parental responsibilities with respect to the children of the marriage and support of the children and the maintenance of a spouse;(f) The relief sought; and(g) A written acknowledgment by the petitioner and the co-petitioner, if any, that he or she has received a copy of, has read, and understands the terms of the automatic temporary injunction required by paragraph (b) of subsection (4) of this section.(2.5) Upon the filing of a petition for dissolution of marriage or legal separation pursuant to this article, each party shall provide to the court, in the manner prescribed by the court, his or her social security number and the social security number of each child named in the petition pursuant to paragraph (d) of subsection (2) of this section.(3) Either or both parties to the marriage may initiate the proceeding. In addition, a legal guardian, with court approval pursuant to section 15-14-315.5, C.R.S., or a conservator, with court approval pursuant to section 15-14-425.5, C.R.S., may initiate the proceeding. If a legal guardian or conservator initiates the proceeding, the legal guardian or conservator shall receive notice in the same manner as the parties to the proceeding.(4)(a) Upon the commencement of a proceeding by one of the parties, or by a legal guardian or conservator of one of the parties, the other party shall be personally served in the manner provided by the Colorado rules of civil procedure, and he or she may file a response in accordance with such rules; except that, upon motion verified by the oath of the party commencing the proceeding or of someone in his or her behalf for an order of publication stating the facts authorizing such service, and showing the efforts, if any, that have been made to obtain personal service within this state, and giving the address or last-known address of each person to be served or stating that his or her address and last-known address are unknown, the court shall hear the motion ex parte and, if satisfied that due diligence has been used to obtain personal service within this state or that efforts to obtain the same would have been to no avail, shall order one publication of a consolidated notice in a newspaper published or having general circulation in the county in which the proceeding is filed, notwithstanding the provisions of article 70 of title 24. A consolidated notice shall be published at least once during a calendar month and shall list the proceedings filed subsequent to those named in the previously published consolidated notice, stating as to each proceeding the names of the parties, the action number, the nature of the action, that a copy of the petition and summons may be obtained from the clerk of the court during regular business hours, and that default judgment may be entered against that party upon whom service is made by such notice if he or she fails to appear or file a response within thirty-five days after the date of publication. Costs of publication of a consolidated notice may be assessed pro rata to each of the proceedings named in the notice; except that, if a party is indigent or otherwise unable to pay such publication costs, the costs shall be paid by the court from funds appropriated for the purpose. Service shall be complete upon such publication, and a response or appearance by the party served by publication under this subsection (4) shall be made within thirty-five days thereafter, or default judgment may be entered. No later than the day of publication, the clerk of the court shall also post for thirty-five consecutive days a copy of the process on a bulletin board in his or her office or on the website of the district court in which the case was filed and shall mail a copy of the process to the other party at his or her last-known address, and shall place in the file of the proceeding his or her certificate of posting and mailing. Proof of publication of the consolidated notice shall be by placing in the file a copy of the affidavit of publication, certified by the clerk of the court to be a true and correct copy of the original affidavit on file in the clerk's office.(b)(I) Upon the filing of a petition for dissolution of marriage or legal separation by the petitioner or copetitioner or by a legal guardian or conservator on behalf of one of the parties and upon personal service of the petition and summons on the respondent or upon waiver and acceptance of service by the respondent, a temporary injunction shall be in effect against both parties until the final decree is entered or the petition is dismissed or until further order of the court: (A) Restraining both parties from transferring, encumbering, concealing, or in any way disposing of, without the consent of the other party or an order of the court, any marital property, except in the usual course of business or for the necessities of life and requiring each party to notify the other party of any proposed extraordinary expenditures and to account to the court for all extraordinary expenditures made after the injunction is in effect;(B) Enjoining both parties from molesting or disturbing the peace of the other party;(C) Restraining both parties from removing the minor child or children of the parties, if any, from the state without the consent of the other party or an order of the court; and(D) Restraining both parties, without at least fourteen days' advance notification and the written consent of the other party or an order of the court, from canceling, modifying, terminating, or allowing to lapse for nonpayment of premiums, any policy of health insurance, homeowner's or renter's insurance, or automobile insurance that provides coverage to either of the parties or the minor children or any policy of life insurance that names either of the parties or the minor children as a beneficiary.(II) The provisions of the injunction shall be printed upon the summons and the petition and the injunction shall become an order of the court upon fulfillment of the requirements of subparagraph (I) of this paragraph (b). However, nothing in this paragraph (b) shall preclude either party from applying to the court for further temporary orders, an expanded temporary injunction, or modification or revocation under section 14-10-108.(III) The summons shall contain the following advisements: (A) That a request for genetic tests shall not prejudice the requesting party in matters concerning allocation of parental responsibilities pursuant to section 14-10-124 (1.5); and(B) That, if genetic tests are not obtained prior to a legal establishment of paternity and submitted into evidence prior to the entry of the legal final decree of dissolution, the genetic tests may not be allowed into evidence at a later date.(4.1) With regard to the automatic, temporary injunction that becomes effective in accordance with paragraph (b) of subsection (4) of this section when a petition for dissolution of marriage or legal separation is filed and served, whenever there is exhibited by the respondent to any duly authorized peace officer as described in section 16-2.5-101, C.R.S., a copy of the petition and summons duly filed and issued pursuant to this section, or, in the case of the petitioner, a copy of the petition and summons duly filed and issued pursuant to this section, together with a certified copy of the affidavit of service of process or a certified copy of the waiver and acceptance of service, and the peace officer has cause to believe that a violation of that part of the automatic, temporary injunction which enjoins both parties from molesting the other party has occurred, such peace officer shall use every reasonable means to enforce that part of the injunction against the petitioner or respondent. A peace officer shall not be held civilly or criminally liable for his or her action pursuant to this subsection (4.1) if the action is in good faith and without malice.(5) Defenses to divorce and legal separation existing prior to January 1, 1972, including but not limited to condonation, connivance, collusion, recrimination, insanity, and lapse of time, are hereby abolished.(6) All issues raised by these proceedings shall be resolved by the court sitting without a jury.Amended by 2017 Ch. 66,§ 5, eff. 9/1/2017.Amended by 2016 Ch. 116,§ 1, eff. 4/21/2016.L. 71: R&RE, p. 521, § 1. C.R.S. 1963: § 46-1-7. L. 72: p. 296, § 1. L. 83: (4) amended, p. 641, § 1, effective July 1. L. 86: (4.1) added, p. 716, § 1, effective April 29. L. 87: (4.1) amended, p. 1578, § 21, effective July 10. L. 98: (2)(e) amended, p. 1395, § 35, effective February 1, 1999. L. 99: (2)(g) and (4)(b)(I)(D) added and (4)(b)(I)(B), (4)(b)(I)(C), and (4)(b)(II) amended, p. 1059, §§ 1, 2, effective June 1; (3), (4)(a), and IP(4)(b)(I) amended, p. 465, § 3, effective July 1. L. 2000: (3) amended, p. 1833, § 7, effective January 1, 2001. L. 2003: (4.1) amended, p. 1621, § 34, effective August 6. L. 2005: (4)(b)(III) added, p. 377, § 1, effective January 1, 2006. L. 2011: (2.5) added, (SB 11-123), ch. 46, p. 118, §2, effective August 10. L. 2012: (4)(a) amended, (SB 12-175), ch. 208, p. 830, § 25, effective July 1. L. 2016: (4)(a) amended, (HB 16-1258), ch. 116, p. 329, § 1, effective April 21. L. 2017: (4)(a) amended, (HB 17-1142), ch. 66, p. 209, § 5, effective September 1.