Ga. Code § 17-10-1

Current through 2023-2024 Legislative Session Chapter 365
Section 17-10-1 - Fixing of sentence; suspension or probation of sentence; change in sentence; eligibility for parole; prohibited modifications; exceptions
(a)
(1)
(A) Except in cases in which life imprisonment, life without parole, or the death penalty may be imposed, upon a verdict or plea of guilty in any case involving a misdemeanor or felony, and after a presentence hearing, the judge fixing the sentence shall prescribe a determinate sentence for a specific number of months or years which shall be within the minimum and maximum sentences prescribed by law as the punishment for the crime. The judge imposing the sentence is granted power and authority to suspend or probate all or any part of the entire sentence under such rules and regulations as the judge deems proper, including service of a probated sentence in the sentencing options system, as provided by Article 6 of Chapter 3 of Title 42, and including the authority to revoke the suspension or probation when the defendant has violated any of the rules and regulations prescribed by the court, even before the probationary period has begun, subject to the conditions set out in this subsection; provided, however, that such action shall be subject to the provisions of Code Sections 17-10-6.1 and 17-10-6.2.
(B)
(i) When a defendant with no prior felony conviction is convicted of felony offenses or is charged with felony offenses and is sentenced pursuant to subsection (a) or (c) of Code Section 16-13-2 or Article 3 of Chapter 8 of Title 42, and the court imposes a sentence of probation or not more than 12 months of imprisonment followed by a term of probation, the court shall include a behavioral incentive date in its sentencing order that does not exceed three years from the date such sentence is imposed. Within 60 days of the expiration of such incentive date, if the defendant has (1) paid all restitution owed; (2) not had his or her probation revoked in the immediately preceding 24 months, or when the court includes a behavioral incentive date less than two years from the date a sentence was imposed, not had his or her probation revoked during such period; and (3) not been arrested for anything other than a nonserious traffic offense as defined in Code Section 35-3-37, the Department of Community Supervision shall notify the prosecuting attorney and the court of such facts. The Department of Community Supervision shall provide the court with an order to terminate such defendant's probation which the court shall execute unless the court or the prosecuting attorney requests a hearing on such matter within 30 days of the receipt of such order. The court shall set the matter for a hearing as soon as possible but not more than 90 days after receiving the order to terminate. The court shall take whatever action it determines would be for the best interest of justice and the welfare of society.
(ii) This subparagraph is intended to be retroactive and shall be applied to any case in which a person with no prior felony conviction was convicted of felony offenses or was charged with felony offenses and was sentenced pursuant to subsection (a) or (c) of Code Section 16-13-2 or Article 3 of Chapter 8 of Title 42, and the court imposed a sentence of probation or a sentence of not more than 12 months of imprisonment followed by a term of probation. A behavioral incentive date shall as a matter of law be included in the sentencing order, but in a case where it was not, the behavioral incentive date shall be three years from the date such sentence was imposed.
(2)
(A) Active probation supervision shall terminate in all cases no later than two years from the commencement of active probation supervision unless specially extended or reinstated by the sentencing court upon notice and hearing and for good cause shown; provided, however, that in those cases involving:
(i) The collection of restitution, the period of active probation supervision shall remain in effect for so long as any such obligation is outstanding, or until termination of the sentence, whichever first occurs;
(ii) A conviction under Chapter 15 of Title 16, the "Georgia Street Gang Terrorism and Prevention Act," the period of active probation supervision shall remain in effect until the termination of the sentence, but shall not exceed five years unless as otherwise provided in this paragraph; or
(iii) A conviction that requires the defendant to register on the state sexual offender registry pursuant to Code Section 42-1-12, the period of active probation supervision shall remain in effect until the court orders unsupervised probation, or until termination of the sentence, whichever first occurs.
(B) Probation supervision shall not be required for defendants sentenced to probation while the defendant is in the legal custody of the Department of Corrections or the State Board of Pardons and Paroles.
(3)
(A) Any part of a sentence of probation revoked for a violation other than a subsequent commission of any felony, a violation of a special condition, or a misdemeanor offense involving physical violence resulting in bodily injury to an innocent victim which in the opinion of the trial court constitutes a danger to the community or a serious infraction occurring while the defendant is assigned to an alternative probation confinement facility shall be served in a probation detention center, probation boot camp, weekend lock up, or confinement in a local jail or detention facility, or other community correctional alternatives available to the court or provided by the Department of Corrections.
(B) A parolee or probationer charged with a misdemeanor involving physical injury or an attempt to commit physical injury or terroristic threats or with a new felony shall not be entitled to bond pending a hearing on the revocation of his or her parole or probation, except by order of a judge of the superior, state, or magistrate court wherein the alleged new offense occurred after a hearing and upon determination of the superior, state, or magistrate court that the parolee or probationer does not constitute a threat to the community; provided, however, that this subparagraph does not authorize state or magistrate court judges to grant bail for a person charged with any offense listed in subsection (a) of Code Section 17-6-1.
(4) In cases of imprisonment followed by probation, the sentence shall specifically provide that the period of probation shall not begin until the defendant has completed service of the confinement portion of the sentence. No revocation of any part of a probated sentence shall be effective while a defendant is in the legal custody of the State Board of Pardons and Paroles.
(5)
(A) When a defendant has been sentenced to probation, the court shall retain jurisdiction throughout the period of the probated sentence as provided for in subsection (g) of Code Section 42-8-34. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the court may shorten the period of active probation supervision or unsupervised probation on motion of the defendant or on its own motion, or upon the request of a community supervision officer, if the court determines that probation is no longer necessary or appropriate for the ends of justice, the protection of society, and the rehabilitation of the defendant. When the court is presented with a petition to shorten the period of active probation supervision or unsupervised probation, the court shall set the matter for a hearing as soon as possible but not more than 90 days after receiving such motion. Prior to entering any order for shortening a period of probation, the court shall afford notice to the victim or victims of all sex related offenses or violent offenses resulting in serious bodily injury or death and, upon request of the victim or victims so notified, shall afford notice and an opportunity for hearing to the defendant and the prosecuting attorney.
(B) The Department of Community Supervision shall establish a form document which shall include the elements set forth in this Code section concerning notification of victims and shall make copies of such form available to prosecuting attorneys in this state. When requested by the victim, the form document shall be provided to the victim by the prosecuting attorney. The form shall include the address of the community supervision office having jurisdiction over the case and contain a statement that the victim must maintain a copy of his or her address with the community supervision office and must notify the office of any change of address in order to maintain eligibility for notification by the Department of Community Supervision as required in this Code section.
(6)
(A) Except as otherwise authorized by law, no court shall modify, suspend, probate, or alter a previously imposed sentence so as to reduce or eliminate a period of incarceration or probation and impose a financial payment which:
(i) Exceeds the statutorily specified maximum fine, plus all penalties, fees, surcharges, and restitution permitted or authorized by law; or
(ii) Is to be made to an entity which is not authorized by law to receive fines, penalties, fees, surcharges, or restitution.
(B) The prohibitions contained in this paragraph shall apply regardless of whether a defendant consents to the modification, suspension, probation, or alteration of such defendant's sentence and the imposition of such payment.
(C) Nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit or prevent a court from requiring, as a condition of suspension, modification, or probation of a sentence in a criminal case involving child abandonment, that the defendant pay all or a portion of child support which is owed to the custodial parent of a child which is the subject of such case.
(7) As used in this subsection, the term:
(A) "Active probation supervision" means the period of a probated sentence in which a probationer actively reports to his or her community supervision officer or is otherwise under the direct supervision of a community supervision officer.
(B) "Unsupervised probation" means the period of a probated sentence that follows active probation supervision in which:
(i) All of the conditions and limitations imposed by the court remain intact;
(ii) A probationer may have reduced reporting requirements; and
(iii) A community supervision officer shall not actively supervise such probationer.
(b) The judge, in fixing the sentence as prescribed in subsection (a) of this Code section, may make a determination as to whether the person being sentenced should be considered for parole prior to the completion of any requirement otherwise imposed by law relating to the completion of service of any specified time period before parole eligibility. In the event that the judge so determines, he or she may specify in the sentence that the person is sentenced under this subsection and may provide that the State Board of Pardons and Paroles, acting in its sole discretion, may consider and may parole any person so sentenced at any time prior to the completion of any minimum requirement otherwise imposed by law, rule, or regulation for the service of sentences or portions thereof. The determination allowed in this subsection shall be applicable to first offenders only.
(c) In any case in which a minor defendant who has not achieved a high school diploma or the equivalent is placed under a probated or suspended sentence, the court may require as a condition of probation or suspension of sentence that the defendant pursue a course of study designed to lead to achieving a high school diploma or the equivalent; and, in any case in which such a condition of probation may be imposed, the court shall give express consideration to whether such a condition should be imposed.
(d)
(1) As used in this subsection, the term:
(A) "Developmental disability" shall have the same meaning as set forth in Code Section 37-1-1.
(B) "Indigent" means an individual who earns less than 100 percent of the federal poverty guidelines unless there is evidence that the individual has other resources that might reasonably be used without undue hardship for such individual or his or her dependents.
(C) "Significant financial hardship" means a reasonable probability that an individual will be unable to satisfy his or her financial obligations for two or more consecutive months.
(D) "Totally and permanently disabled" shall have the same meaning as set forth in Code Section 49-4-80.
(2) In determining the financial obligations, other than restitution, to impose on the defendant, the court shall consider:
(A) The defendant's financial resources and other assets, including whether any such assets are jointly controlled;
(B) The defendant's earnings and other income;
(C) The defendant's financial obligations, including obligations to dependents;
(D) The period of time during which the probation order will be in effect;
(E) The goal of the punishment being imposed; and
(F) Any other factor the court deems appropriate.
(3) In any case involving a violation of local ordinance, misdemeanor, or felony in which the defendant has been punished in whole or in part by a fine, the court shall be authorized to allow the defendant to satisfy such fine or any fee imposed in connection with probation supervision through community service as set forth in Article 3 of Chapter 3 of Title 42. One hour of community service shall equal the dollar amount of one hour of paid labor at the minimum wage under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, in effect on January 1, 2018, unless otherwise specified by the court. A defendant shall be required to serve the number of hours in community service which equals the number derived by dividing the amount owed by the defendant, including moneys assessed by a provider of probation services, by the federal minimum hourly wage or by the amount specified by the court. If the court orders educational advancement, the court shall determine the numbers of hours required to be completed. Prior to or subsequent to sentencing, a defendant, or subsequent to sentencing, a community supervision officer, may request that the court make all or any portion of the amount owed by the defendant be satisfied under this subsection.
(4) At the time of sentencing, the court may waive the imposition of a fine, exclusive of the payment of statutory surcharges, upon a determination that a defendant has a significant financial hardship or inability to pay or other extenuating factors exist that prohibit payment or collection of such fine. When determining significant financial hardship, the court may consider whether the defendant is indigent and whether the defendant or his or her dependents has a developmental disability or is totally and permanently disabled. If the court waives the imposition of a fine under this paragraph, it shall instead impose a theoretical fine and the defendant shall be required to pay the statutory surcharges associated therewith.
(e) In any case involving a felony in which the defendant previously appeared before a juvenile court, the records of the dispositions of the defendant as well as any evidence used in any juvenile court hearing shall be available to the district attorney, the defendant, and the superior court judge in determining sentencing as provided in Code Section 15-11-703.
(f) Within one year of the date upon which the sentence is imposed, or within 120 days after receipt by the sentencing court of the remittitur upon affirmance of the judgment after direct appeal, whichever is later, the court imposing the sentence has the jurisdiction, power, and authority to correct or reduce the sentence and to suspend or probate all or any part of the sentence imposed. The time periods prescribed in this subsection require the defendant to file a motion within such time periods; however, the court shall not be constrained to issue its order or hear the matter within such time periods. Prior to entering any order correcting, reducing, or modifying any sentence, the court shall afford notice and an opportunity for a hearing to the prosecuting attorney. Any order modifying a sentence which is entered without notice and an opportunity for a hearing as provided in this subsection shall be void. This subsection shall not limit any other jurisdiction granted to the court in this Code section or as provided for in subsection (g) of Code Section 42-8-34.
(g)
(1)
(A) In sentencing a defendant convicted of a felony to probated confinement, the sentencing judge may make the defendant's participation in a work release program operated by a county a condition of probation, provided that such program is available and the administrator of such program accepts the inmate.
(B) Any defendant accepted into a county work release program shall thereby be transferred into the legal custody of the administrator of said program; likewise, any defendant not accepted shall remain in the legal custody of the Department of Corrections.
(2) Work release status granted by the court may be revoked for cause by the sentencing court in its discretion or may be revoked by the state or local authority operating the work release program for any reason for which work release status would otherwise be revoked.
(3) The provisions of this subsection shall not limit the authority of the commissioner to authorize work release status pursuant to Code Section 42-5-59 or apply to or affect the authority to authorize work release of county prisoners, which shall be as provided for in Code Sections 42-1-4 and 42-1-9 or as otherwise provided by law.
(4) This subsection shall not apply with respect to any violent felony or any offense for which the work release status is specifically prohibited by law, including but not limited to serious violent felonies as specified in Code Section 17-10-6.1.

OCGA § 17-10-1

Amended by 2021 Ga. Laws 151,§ 1, eff. 5/3/2021.
Amended by 2020 Ga. Laws 503,§ 1, eff. 1/1/2021.
Amended by 2018 Ga. Laws 562,§ 17, eff. 5/8/2018.
Amended by 2018 Ga. Laws 416,§ 2-6, eff. 7/1/2018.
Amended by 2017 Ga. Laws 226,§ 2-1, eff. 7/1/2017.
Amended by 2016 Ga. Laws 460,§ 13-4, eff. 7/1/2016.
Amended by 2015 Ga. Laws 73,§ 5-30, eff. 7/1/2015.
Amended by 2015 Ga. Laws 9,§ 17, eff. 3/13/2015.
Amended by 2013 Ga. Laws 127,§ 4-17, eff. 1/1/2014.
Amended by 2013 Ga. Laws 84,§ 7, eff. 7/1/2013.
Amended by 2013 Ga. Laws 33,§ 17, eff. 4/24/2013.
Amended by 2012 Ga. Laws 709,§ IV-4-3, eff. 7/1/2012.
Amended by 2010 Ga. Laws 406,§ 10, eff. 7/1/2010.
Amended by 2006 Ga. Laws 739,§ 7, eff. 7/1/2006.
Amended by 2006 Ga. Laws 571,§ 19, eff. 7/1/2006.
Amended by 2005 Ga. Laws 19,§ 17, eff. 4/7/2005.
Amended by 2004 Ga. Laws 595, § 1, eff. 7/1/2004.
Amended by 2001 Ga. Laws 20.
Amended by 2001 Ga. Laws 312.