This Rule applies to all bail bonds taken pursuant to Rule 4-216, 4-216.1, 4-216.2, or 4-216.3, and to bonds taken pursuant to Rules 4-267, 4-348, and 4-349 to the extent consistent with those rules.
As used in this Rule, the following words have the following meanings:
"Bail bond" means a written obligation of a defendant, with or without a surety or collateral security, conditioned on the appearance of the defendant as required and providing for the payment of a penalty sum according to its terms.
"Bail bondsman" means an authorized agent of a surety insurer.
"Clerk" means the clerk of the court and any deputy or administrative clerk.
"Collateral security" means any property deposited, pledged, or encumbered to secure the performance of a bail bond.
"Surety" means a person other than the defendant who, by executing a bail bond, guarantees the appearance of the defendant, and includes an uncompensated or accommodation surety.
"Surety insurer" means any person in the business of becoming, either directly or through an authorized agent, a surety on a bail bond for compensation.
Any clerk, District Court commissioner, or other person authorized by law may take a bail bond. The person who takes a bail bond shall deliver it to the court in which the charges are pending, together with all money or other collateral security deposited or pledged and all documents pertaining to the bail bond.
Cross reference: Code, Criminal Procedure Article, §§ 5-204 and 5-205. See Code, Insurance Article, § 10-309, which requires a signed affidavit of surety by the defendant or the insurer that shall be provided to the court if payment of premiums charged for bail bonds is in installments.
The Chief Clerk of the District Court shall maintain a list containing:
Cross reference: For penalties imposed on surety insurers in default, see Code, Insurance Article, § 21-103(a).
No bail bond shall be accepted if the surety on the bond is on the current list maintained by the Chief Clerk of the District Court of those in default. No bail bond executed by a surety insurer directly may be accepted unless accompanied by an affidavit reciting that the surety insurer is authorized by the Insurance Commissioner of Maryland to write bail bonds in this State.
Cross reference: For the obligation of the District Court Clerk or a circuit court clerk to notify the Insurance Commissioner concerning a surety insurer who fails to resolve or satisfy bond forfeitures, see Code, Insurance Article, § 21-103(b).
No bail bond executed by a bail bondsman may be accepted unless the bondsman's name appears on the most recent list maintained by the Chief Clerk of the District Court, the bail bond is within the limit specified in the bondsman's general power of attorney as shown on the list or in a special power of attorney filed with the bond, and the bail bond is accompanied by an affidavit reciting that the bail bondsman:
A defendant or surety required to give collateral security may satisfy the requirement by:
Cross reference: See Code, Criminal Procedure Article, §§ 5-203 and 5-205, permitting certain persons to post a cash bail or cash bond when an order specifies that the bail or bond may be posted only by the defendant.
Collateral security shall be accepted only if the person who takes the bail bond is satisfied that it is worth the required amount.
Upon a finding that the collateral security originally deposited, pledged, or encumbered is insufficient to ensure collection of the penalty sum of the bond, the court, on motion by the State or on its own initiative and after notice and opportunity for hearing, may require additional or different collateral security.
The condition of any bail bond taken pursuant to this Rule shall be that the defendant personally appear as required in any court in which the charges are pending, or in which a charging document may be filed based on the same acts or transactions, or to which the action may be transferred, removed, or if from the District Court, appealed, and that the bail bond shall continue in effect until discharged pursuant to section (j) of this Rule.
Every pretrial bail bond taken shall be in the form of the bail bond set forth at the end of this Title as Form 4217.2, and, except as provided in Code, Criminal Procedure Article, § 5-214, shall be executed and acknowledged by the defendant and any surety before the person who takes the bond.
A surety on a bail bond who has custody of a defendant may procure the discharge of the bail bond at any time before forfeiture by:
Unless released on a new bond, the defendant shall be taken forthwith before a judge of the court in which the charges are pending.
On motion of the surety or any person who paid the premium or fee, and after notice and opportunity to be heard, the court may by order award to the surety an allowance for expenses in locating and surrendering the defendant, and refund the balance to the person who paid it.
If a defendant fails to appear as required, the court shall order forfeiture of the bail bond and issuance of a warrant for the defendant's arrest and may set a new bond in the action. The clerk shall promptly notify any surety on the defendant's original bond, and the State's Attorney, of the forfeiture of that bond and the issuance of the warrant.
Cross reference: Code, Criminal Procedure Article, § 5-211.
If a new bond is set under subsection (i)(1) of this Rule and the defendant posts the bond:
If the defendant or surety can show reasonable grounds for the defendant's failure to appear, notwithstanding Rule 2535, the court shall (A) strike out the forfeiture in whole or in part, (B) set aside any judgment entered thereon pursuant to subsection (5)(A) of this section, and (C) order the remission in whole or in part of the penalty sum paid pursuant to subsection (4) of this section.
Cross reference: Code, Criminal Procedure Article, § 5-208(b)(1) and (2) and Allegany Mut. Cas. Co. v. State, 234 Md. 278, 199 A.2d 201 (1964).
Within 90 days from the date the defendant fails to appear, which time the court may extend to 180 days upon good cause shown, a surety shall satisfy any order of forfeiture, either by producing the defendant in court or by paying the penalty sum of the bond. If the defendant is produced within such time by the State, the court shall require the surety to pay the expenses of the State in producing the defendant and shall treat the order of forfeiture satisfied with respect to the remainder of the penalty sum.
If an order of forfeiture has not been stricken or satisfied within 90 days after the defendant's failure to appear, or within 180 days if the time has been extended, the clerk shall forthwith:
Enforcement of the judgment shall be by the State's Attorney in accordance with those provisions of the rules relating to the enforcement of judgments.
When the defendant is produced in court after the period allowed under subsection (4) of this section, the surety may apply for the refund of any penalty sum paid in satisfaction of the forfeiture less any expenses permitted by law. The court shall strike out a forfeiture of bail or collateral and deduct only the actual expense incurred for the defendant's arrest, apprehension, or surrender provided that the surety paid the forfeiture of bail or collateral during the period allowed for the return of the defendant under subsection (4) of this section.
The bail bond shall be discharged when:
Cross reference: See Code, Criminal Procedure Article, § 5-208(d) relating to discharge of a bail bond when the charges are stetted. See also Rule 4-349 pursuant to which the District Court judge may deny release on bond pending appeal or may impose different or greater conditions for release after conviction than were imposed for the pretrial release of the defendant pursuant to Rule 4-216, 4-216.1, 4-216.2, or 4-216.3.
Upon the discharge of a bail bond and surrender of the receipt, the clerk shall return any collateral security to the person who deposited or pledged it and shall release any Declaration of Trust that was taken.
Md. Crim. Causes. 4-217
This Rule is derived from former Rule 722 and M.D.R. 722.
The January 8, 2002, order deleted subsec. (b)(6), which read: " Commissioner means a commissioner of the District Court."; redesignated former subsecs. (b)(7) and (b)(8) as subsecs. (b)(6) and (b)(7), respectively; and rewrote section (c), which previously read:
"Any commissioner, clerk, judge, or peace officer authorized by law, is authorized to take a bail bond. A peace officer who takes a bail bond shall return it to the court in which the charges are pending, together with all money or other collateral security deposited or pledged and all documents pertaining to the bail bond."
The January 8, 2002, order also amended cross references throughout the rule.
The November 12, 2003, order amended the cross reference following section (c); and substituted "ensure" for "insure" in subsec. (e)(3).
The May 8, 2007, order added cross references after subsections (d)(1) and (d)(2).
The December 4, 2007, order, added the code reference in section (g).
The September 10, 2009, order, in subsection (d)(1), added the second and third sentences; and in the cross reference after subsection (d)(2), added "or a circuit court clerk".
The June 11, 2012, order deleted a reference to Ruleand added a reference to Rule .
The November 1, 2012, order added a cross reference after section (c), by deleting language from and adding language to subsection (i)(5) to include a condition to striking out the forfeiture of bail, added language to subsection (i)(6)(B) to include conditions to striking out the forfeiture of bail where the defendant is incarcerated outside the State, and added a new subsection (i)(6)(C) to provide for an exception to subsection (i)(6)(B). Section (i)(6)(B) previously read:
"(B) If, after the expiration of the period allowed under subsection (3) of this section, but within 10 years from the date the bond or collateral was posted, the surety produces evidence and the court finds that the defendant is incarcerated in a penal institution outside this State and that the State's Attorney is unwilling to issue a detainer and subsequently extradite the defendant, the court shall (i) strike out the forfeiture; (ii) set aside any judgment thereon; and (iii) order the return of the forfeited bond or collateral or the remission of any penalty sum paid pursuant to subsection (3) of this section."
The May 27, 2014, order added internal references to Rulein (a) and (j)(1)(E).
The March 2, 2015, order added a cross reference after subsection (e)(1)(A) pertaining to orders setting cash bail or cash bond and made stylistic changes.
The December 7, 2015, order, added certain provisions pertaining to setting and posting a bond in connection with a warrant issued under that section.
The June 6, 2016, order revised internal references in the Rule.
The February 16, 2017 order, revised internal references.