Ariz. R. Evid. 804

As amended through December 6, 2023
Rule 804 - Exceptions to the Against Hearsay-when the Declarant is Unavailable as a Witness
(a)Criteria for Being Unavailable. A declarant is considered to be unavailable as a witness if the declarant:
(1) is exempted from testifying about the subject matter of the declarant's statement because the court rules that a privilege applies;
(2) refuses to testify about the subject matter despite a court order to do so;
(3) testifies to not remembering the subject matter;
(4) cannot be present or testify at the trial or hearing because of death or a then-existing infirmity, physical illness, or mental illness; or
(5) is absent from the trial or hearing and the statement's proponent has not been able, by process or other reasonable means, to procure:
(A) the declarant's attendance, in the case of a hearsay exception under Rule 804(b)(1) or (6); or
(B) the declarant's attendance or testimony, in the case of a hearsay exception under Rule 804(b)(2), (3), or (4).

But this subsection (a) does not apply if the statement's proponent procured or wrongfully caused the declarant's unavailability as a witness in order to prevent the declarant from attending or testifying.

(b)The Exceptions. The following are not excluded by the rule against hearsay if the declarant is unavailable as a witness:
(1)Former Testimony in a Criminal Case. Testimony that:
(A) was made under oath by a party or witness during a previous judicial proceeding or a deposition under Arizona Rule of Criminal Procedure 15.3 shall be admissible in evidence if:
(i) The party against whom the former testimony is offered was a party to the action or proceeding during which a statement was given and had the right and opportunity to cross-examine the declarant with an interest and motive similar to that which the party now has (no person who was unrepresented by counsel at the proceeding during which a statement was made shall be deemed to have had the right and opportunity to cross-examine the declarant, unless such representation was waived) and
(ii) The declarant is unavailable as a witness, or is present and subject to cross-examination.
(B) The admissibility of former testimony under this subsection is subject to the same limitations and objections as though the declarant were testifying at the hearing, except that the former testimony offered under this subsection is not subject to:
(i) Objections to the form of the question which were not made at the time the prior testimony was given.
(ii) Objections based on competency or privilege which did not exist at the time the former testimony was given.
(2)Statement Under the Belief of Imminent Death. In a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, a statement that the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made about its cause or circumstances.
(3)Statement Against Interest. A statement that:
(A) a reasonable person in the declarant's position would have made only if the person believed it to be true because, when made, it was so contrary to the declarant's proprietary or pecuniary interest or had so great a tendency to invalidate the declarant's claim against someone else or to expose the declarant to civil or criminal liability; and
(B) is supported by corroborating circumstances that clearly indicate its trustworthiness, if it is offered in a criminal case as one that tends to expose the declarant to criminal liability.
(4)Statement of Personal or Family History. A statement about:
(A) the declarant's own birth, adoption, legitimacy, ancestry, marriage, divorce, relationship by blood, adoption, or marriage, or similar facts of personal or family history, even though the declarant had no way of acquiring personal knowledge about that fact; or
(B) another person concerning any of these facts, as well as death, if the declarant was related to the person by blood, adoption, or marriage or was so intimately associated with the person's family that the declarant's information is likely to be accurate.
(5) [Formerly (7) Other exceptions.] [Transferred to Rule 807.]
(6)Statement Offered Against a Party That Wrongfully Caused the Declarant's Unavailability. A statement offered against a party that wrongfully caused--or acquiesced in wrongfully causing--the declarant's unavailability as a witness, and did so intending that result.

Ariz. R. Evi. 804

Amended Oct. 19, 1988, effective 11/1/1988; 10/3/1994, effective 12/1/1994; 9/3/2009, effective 1/1/2010; 9/8/2011, effective 1/1/2012.


Rule 804(b)(3) has been amended to conform to Federal Rule of Evidence 804(b)(3), as amended effective December 1, 2010.

To conform to Federal Rules of Evidence 804(b)(5) and 807, Rule 804(b)(7) has been deleted and transferred to Rule 807.

Rule 804(b)(1) has been amended to incorporate the language of Arizona Rule of Criminal Procedure 19.3(c), but has not been amended to conform to the federal rules.

Otherwise, the language of Rule 804 has been amended to conform to the federal restyling of the Evidence Rules to make them more easily understood and to make style and terminology consistent throughout the rules. These changes are intended to be stylistic only. There is no intent in the restyling to change any result in any ruling on evidence admissibility.


For provisions governing former testimony in non-criminal actions or proceedings, see Rule 803(25).



Federal Rules of Evidence, Rule 804.