248 Mass. Reg. 10.10

Current through Register 1524, June 21, 2024
Section 10.10 - Plumbing Fixtures
(1)General Requirements.
(a)Fixture Materials and Quality. Plumbing fixtures shall be constructed from Product-accepted materials have smooth and impervious surfaces and be free from defects.

Exception: Slip resistant surfaces in showers and bathtubs when required per testing standards.

(b)Overflows.
1.Design. When any fixture is provided with an overflow, the waste shall be arranged so that the standing water in the fixture cannot rise in the overflow when the stopper is closed or remain in the overflow when the fixture is empty.
2.Connection. The overflow from any fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet or fixture side of the trap, except that the overflow from a flush tank serving a toilet or urinal shall discharge only into the fixture served.
(c)Installation.
1.Cleaning. All fixtures must be installed to afford easy access for cleaning both the fixture and the areas around it.
2.Joints. Where a fixture meets walls and floors, the joint shall be watertight.
3.Securing Fixtures. Floor outlet fixtures and wall hung fixtures shall be rigidly secured to the finished floor or wall by corrosion resistant screws or bolts, or other methods in compliance with manufacturers' instructions and codified in 248 CMR 10.05(17).
4.Wall-hung Carriers and Supports. Wall hung fixtures shall be rigidly supported by a concealed metal Product-accepted fixture carrier so that no strain is transmitted to the fixture discharge connection.
5.Setting. Fixtures shall be set plumb, level and in proper alignment with reference to adjacent walls and other plumbing fixtures.
6.Toilets, Urinals and Lavatories. Toilets, urinals, and lavatories in public and employee restrooms shall be located no less than 15 inches from the centerline of the fixture to the sidewall or 30 inches center-to-center to another fixture. See 10.10: Example 1. The minimum distance from the front of the fixture to an obstruction shall be no less than 21 inches.

Exception: Grab bars, paper holders or other accessories shall not be considered obstructions. These requirements shall not apply to fixtures for children covered under 606 CMR 7.00: Standards for the Licensure or Approval of Amily Child Care; Small Group and School Age and Large Group and School Age Child Care Programs.

10.10 Example 1

Minimum Distances Public & Employee Rest Rooms

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7.Lavatories. Lavatories in public and employee restrooms shall be located in the same rest room as the toilet.

Exception: Lavatories in hotels, motels and dwellings may be installed outside of but in close proximity to the bathroom.

8.Location of Fixtures. Plumbing fixtures or any other part of the plumbing system shall be installed in a manner as to not interfere with the proper operation of windows, doors or other equipment.
(d)Prohibited Fixtures. The following fixtures are prohibited.
1. Toilets with:
a. an invisible seal;
b. a mechanical seal;
c. a device that may allow siphonage from the bowl to the tank.
2. Urinals with:
a. trough drains;
b. stall type;
c. with an exposed trap;
d. an invisible seal.
(2)Toilets.
(a)Employee or Public. A toilet for public or employee use shall be of the elongated type. Exception: In facilities where fixtures are provided for use of children younger than six years old, toilets shall be sized suitable for their use.
(b)Flushing Device. A toilet tank shall have sufficient capacity to flush properly the toilet bowl with which it is connected.
(c)Float Valve and Ballcocks. A float valve or ballcock in a toilet flush tank shall be of anti-siphon design and shall provide sufficient water to refill the trap seal in the toilet bowl.
(d)Flushometer Valves.
1. A flushometer valve shall be so installed that it will be readily accessible for repairing.
2. When the valve is operated, it shall complete the cycle of operation automatically opening and closing positively under the service pressure.
3. At each operation the valve shall deliver water in sufficient volume and at a rate that will thoroughly flush the fixture and refill the fixture trap.
4. Means shall be provided for regulating the flushometer valve flow.
5. Not more than one fixture shall be served by a single flushometer valve.
6. Protection against backflow shall be provided as specified in 248 CMR 10.14(8).
(e)Seats. Toilets shall be elongated equipped with open-front seats of smooth non-absorbent material with or without covers. Seats must be of proper size to fit the related toilet.

Exception:

1. Elongated or round front toilets with closed front seats shall be permitted in single family dwellings, condominiums, apartments, dormitories, hotel and motel guest rooms and private office bathrooms.
2. Round front toilets with closed seats shall be allowed in daycare, pre-school, and kindergarten facilities in compliance with local Board of Health regulations.
(f) Toilets shall use a maximum of 1.6 gallons (6.0 liters) per flush.
(g) Toilets in public or employee rest rooms shall be installed using separate compartments to ensure privacy.

Exception:

1. Unisex/gender-neutral single user toilet rooms;
2. In childcare facilities where fixtures are provided for use of children younger than six years old.
(h)Alternative Technology Toilet Systems.
1. Innovative alternative technology toilets may be installed in place of a liquid sealed toilet.
2. Alternative technology toilets are considered plumbing fixtures under 248 CMR 10.00 and therefore, plumbing permit requirements must be satisfied.
3. The alternative technology toilet system shall be manufactured to NSF/ASNI standards and shall be installed in compliance with the manufacturer's instructions.
4. For additional fixture requirements, refer to 248 CMR 10.10(15): Table 1.
5. Installations in areas where no potable water is available, hand sanitizer stations may be installed in lieu of the required lavatory with prior approval from the local board of health.
(3)Urinals.
(a) All urinals shall be of the type containing integral traps. See 10.10: Example 2.

10.10: Example 2 - Example of Urinal with Integral Trap

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(b) Urinals shall be flushed only by means of an automatic flushing tank or flushometers equipped with a backflow preventer.
(c) Urinals shall use a maximum of one gallon (3.8 liters) per flush.
(d)Automatic Flushing Tank. A tank that flushes more than one urinal, shall be automatic in operation and shall be of sufficient capacity to provide the necessary water to flush and cleanse properly all urinals simultaneously.
(e)Materials Surrounding Urinals in Facilities Other Than Private Residences.
1. The floor areas one foot in front of the urinal lip and one foot on each side of the urinal, and the wall areas to four feet above the floor, shall be finished with non-absorbent materials. See 10.10: Example 3.

10.10 Example 3 - Example Non-absorbent Materials Surrounding Urinals

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(f) Urinals shall be side shielded for privacy.
(g)Waterless Urinals.
1. shall have a liquid barrier trap seal;
2. shall be installed downstream of at least one water supplied fixture;
3. shall have a water line roughed in for future use to each waterless urinal.
(h) Urinals may be substituted for toilets where indicated in 248 CMR 10.10, Table 1 Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy and are listed by percentage.
(i) When urinals are installed in accessible rest rooms, at least one shall be set for handicapped use.
(4)Bathtubs, Tub and Shower Units and Showers.
(a)Shower Head Supply Riser. Every shower head supply riser or extension from the shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or not, shall be properly secured to the structure. See 10.10: Example 4.

10.10 Example 4 - Shower Head Securely Fastened to Structure

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(b)Drain Size
1. The minimum size drain for a bathtub or tub and shower unit shall be 1½ inches.
2. The minimum size drain for a shower with one 2.0 G.P.M shower head operating at one time shall be 1½ inches.
3. The minimum size drain for a shower with more than one 2.0 G.P.M shower head which may operate simultaneously shall be two inches.
a. Multiple shower heads which operate simultaneously up to and including ten G.P.M shall have a minimum two-inch drain.
b. Multiple shower heads which operate simultaneously up to and including 20 G.P.M shall have a minimum three-inch drain.
c. Multiple shower heads which operate simultaneously up to and including 50 G.P.M shall have a minimum four-inch drain.
4. Waste outlets serving showers shall have removable strainers not less than three inches in diameter and shall have strainer openings not less than ¼ inch. Exception: Other shower strainers which are product-accepted.
5. Showers where multiple heads are installed and the individual shower space, area, stall or compartment is not provided with an individual waste outlet, the waste outlet shall be so located that the floor is designed and pitched so that wastewater from one shower head area does not flow over the floor area serving another shower head area.
6. Waste outlets shall be securely fastened to the waste pipe and make a watertight connection thereto.
7. Where a handicap accessible shower stall which does not incorporate a threshold is installed with an additional floor drain in the same bathroom, the waste outlet for the floor drain may connect to the vertical piping between the shower drain and the trap weir. See 10.10: Example 5.

10.10 Example 5 - Second Drain for Accessible Shower Stall with no Threshold

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(c)Controls.
1. All control valves and diverters shall be installed to prevent by-passing of hot or cold water.
2. The water supply to a shower head shall be supplied through a Product-accepted individual thermostatic, pressure balancing or combination thermostatic/pressure balancing valve.
a. Hand-held showers shall also conform to 248 CMR 10.10(4)(c).
b. Hand-held showers shall be equipped with a properly installed vacuum breaker.
c. Hand-held showers shall be considered a shower head.
3. Shower heads shall use a maximum of 2.0 gallons per minute (G.P.M.).
4. All control valves shall be equipped with devices to limit the maximum outlet temperature of mixed water to 120 °F and shall be adjusted by the installing plumber, prior to final inspection in accordance with 248 CMR 10.04(2)(b).
5. Central type automatic temperature control mixing valves may be used in lieu of individual control complying with ASSE 1070, provided that the temperature control mixing valve limits the maximum temperature of the hot water supplied to individual shower controls to 120°F during all periods when showers are in use.
a. A thermometer is required in the outlet piping of the automatic central control mixing valve for inspection and adjustment of temperature.
b. Check valves are required on the hot and cold-water inlets on all automatic central control mixing valves.
c. When the temperature in the incoming hot water supply piping to a shower station is controlled by an automatic temperature control mixing valve, individual shower controls maybe Product Accepted, two-handle or single-handle shower valves.
(d)Showers.
1.Size. The interior height of all showers shall be at least 72 inches above the drain. Where glass enclosures are provided, the interior shall be capable of encompassing a 30" circle.
a.Square or Rectangular. The rough-in dimension of a square or rectangular shower shall be no less than 32 inches front to back and 32 inches side to side. See 10.10: Example 6.

Exception: The minimum 32 inch rough-in dimension shall not apply to shower compartments with an overall rough-in dimension of not less than 30 inches in width provided the shower is at least 48 inches in length.

b.Neo-Angle. The rough-in dimensions of a neo-angle shower shall be no less than 38 inches front to back and 38 inches side to side. See 10.10: Example 7.
c.Neo-round. The rough-in dimensions of a neo-round shower shall be no less than 36 inches front to back and 36 inches side to side. See 10.10: Example 8.

10.10: Example 6

Square or Rectangle

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10.10: Example 7

Neo-Angle

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10.10: Example 8

Neo-Round

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2.Floors and Receptors.
a. Floors or receptors under shower compartments shall be laid on or be supported by a smooth and structurally sound base.
b. Manufactured shower pans, shower bases, and shower receptors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.
b. Floors under shower compartments, other than those laid directly on the ground surface or where prefabricated shower base receptors have been provided, shall be lined, and made watertight by the provision of suitable shower pans of durable Product-accepted materials.
c. Shower pans shall turn up on all sides other than the threshold at least three inches above the finished threshold level when one is present.
d. Shower pans shall be securely fastened to the waste outlet at the seepage entrance making a watertight joint between the pan and the outlet.
e. Floor surfaces shall be constructed of smooth, non-corrosive, nonabsorbent, and waterproof materials.
f. Where showers are installed without a threshold and an additional drain is installed in the floor within the same bathroom, the waste for the second drain may be connected directly to the inlet side of a properly sized and vented trap. See 10.10: Example 5.
3.Outside Showers. Outside showers are not a requirement of 248 CMR.
a. When tempered water is provided, these showers shall meet the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(4)(c).
b. Drains for outside, uncovered showers shall not be required.
(e)Built-in Bathtubs. The wall area above built-in tubs having installed shower heads shall be constructed of smooth, non-corrosive, and non-absorbent, waterproof materials to a height not less than 72 inches above the floor level. Such walls shall form a watertight joint with each other and with the bathing tub.
(f)Free Standing Tubs and Whirlpool Baths.
1. The hot water supply temperature shall not exceed 120 ° F controlled by a temperature limiting device conforming to ASSE 1070.
2. For whirlpool baths, access shall be provided for service, repair, or replacement of the circulation pump.
(4)Food-Waste Disposers.
(a)Residential or Domestic Food-waste Disposers. Domestic food-waste disposer units shall be connected to a drain of not less than 1½ inches in diameter.
(b)Commercial Food-waste Disposers.
1. Commercial food-waste disposers shall be connected to a drain of sufficient size to serve the unit, but in no case connected to a drain of less than two inches in diameter.
2. Commercial food-waste disposers units shall be connected and trapped separately from other fixtures or compartments.
3. These disposers shall be separately connected to a waste stack or branch drain.
4. All Commercial food-waste disposers shall be provided with an adequate supply of cold water properly protected from backflow at a sufficient flow rate to insure proper functioning of the unit.
(5)Drinking Fountains. (Drinking Water Station)
(a) The minimum size trap for a drinking water station shall not be less than one and one quarter inches in nominal diameter.
(b) All drinking water stations shall be of the self-closing type and comply with the requirements of NSF-61.
(c) Drinking water stations shall not be installed in toilet rooms.
(d) When installing a drinking water station without a drain, rough plumbing shall be installed to facilitate a future connection.
(e) For purposes of 248 CMR 10.00, bottle filling stations with a drain shall be considered as drinking water stations.
(f) With relation to 248 CMR 10.10: Table 1, bi-level drinking water stations shall be counted as one fixture.
(g) Drinking fountains shall be permitted to discharge directly or indirectly into the sanitary drainage System.
(6)Floor/Trough Drains.
(a) Floor/trough drains shall have integral or separate traps providing a minimum water seal of three inches and shall incorporate removable strainers.
(b) Floor/trough drains shall be constructed so that they may be readily cleaned, and the drain inlet shall be easily accessible.
(c) Floor/trough drains subject to backflow shall be provided with back water valves.
(d) Floor/trough drains shall be of a size to serve efficiently the square foot floor area to be served or the purpose for which they are intended. Floor/trough drain outlets shall not be less than two inches in nominal diameter.
(e)Proper Installation and Protection Against Loss of Trap Seal.
1. The design and installation of floor/trough drains shall be at a grade to enable complete floor drainage from all directions.
2. All floor/trough drains shall be installed with a readily accessible automatic trap-resealing device. See 10.10: Example 9.

Exceptions:

a. Floor/trough drains that receive a continuous or semi-continuous discharge from indirect waste fixtures pursuant to 248 CMR 10.12 may be allowed.
b. Product-accepted barrier type floor drain trap seal protection devices shall be allowed in a single room with multiple floor drains for up to 90% of the drains provided at least one automatic trap-priming device is present. These devices shall not be allowed in a single room with only one floor drain.
c. an accessible wall hydrant within the room may be substituted for a trap-priming device.
3. Floor/trough drains that receive special hazardous waste shall comply with 248 CMR 10.13.
(f) Floor/trough drains shall be required in all commercial/industrial and multi-family laundries.
(g) Floor/trough drains shall be required in all commercial boiler rooms.
(h) Floor drains shall be required in all commercial or public rest rooms containing more than one flushing fixture. Where a urinal is present, the floor drain shall be installed in in the same vicinity.

10.10: Example 9 - Trap Resealing Device

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(7)Dishwashing Machines.
(a)Waste Discharge.
1.Domestic. The waste discharge shall comply with 248 CMR 10.08(2)(a)1.c.iv.
2.Commercial.
a. Dishwashing machines that discharge by gravity shall be indirectly connected except when the machine is located above or within five feet of a trapped floor drain, the waste may be connected directly to the inlet side of a properly vented floor drain trap.
b. Dishwashing machines that incorporate drainage discharge by pumping shall discharge waste to the sanitary drainage system in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
3.Portable Dishwashers. Residential portable dishwashing machines may discharge over the rim of a properly trapped and vented fixture.
(8)Automatic Clothes Washing Machine.
(a)Requirements. A washing machine connection shall consist of a piping arrangement including hot and cold-water supplies and a properly sized trapped and vented drain connection in conformance with the following:
1.One- and Two-family Dwellings. At least one washing machine connection. If only one washing machine connection is provided, it shall be located so that each occupant in the dwelling has access to the washing machine that may be affixed to the washing machine connection.
2.Multiple Dwelling.
a. One washing machine connection for every ten dwelling units, or fraction thereof.
b.Dormitories. In dormitories, one washing machine connection for every ten dwelling units or fraction thereof. For purposes of post-secondary school residential dormitories, the Board considers one dwelling unit to be equivalent to four students.
c. Washing machine connections shall be located so that each occupant in the dwelling has access to the washing machine that may be affixed to the washing machine connection.
(b)Water Supply. The water supplies to clothes washers shall be protected against backflow by the use of an air gap or a backflow preventer.
(c)Waste Discharge.
1.Residential Machines.
a. The waste from a clothes washer shall discharge through an air-break into a standpipe or laundry/kitchen sink provided the fixture trap is two inches or larger.
b. The standpipe shall extend not more than 30 inches nor less than 18 inches above the base of the machine and shall not be less than two inches in diameter. The trap shall not be installed below floor level. See 10.10: Example 10.
c. Discharge into a properly sized floor drain shall be allowed provided a standpipe receptor is tapped and properly installed in the cover of the floor drain.

10.10: Example 10 Residential Washing Machine Drain

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2.Commercial (Laundromats). The minimum size of a trap and standpipe shall be not less than two inches in diameter, and shall connect to a drain large enough in size to receive the simultaneous discharge of 75% of all clothes washing machines connected thereto.
(9)Laundry Sinks, Service Sinks, and Mop Receptors.
(a) Laundry sinks shall have a minimum depth of 12 inches, a minimum waste outlet of one and one half inches and be equipped with a strainer. See 10.10: Example 11.
(b) Service sinks and mop receptors shall have a minimum waste outlet of two-inch and be equipped with a removable strainer. The floor areas one foot in front of the sink/receptor, one foot on each side, and the wall areas to one foot above shall be finished with non-absorbent materials.

10.10: Example 11 - Laundry Sink

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(10)Lavatories and Hand Washing Sinks.
(a)Public and Employee.
1. The maximum hot water temperature for shall be 120 °F.
2. The maximum flow rate for faucets shall not exceed 0.5 gallons per minute (G.P.M.)
3. The maximum flow rate for metering faucets shall not exceed 0.25 gallons per metering cycle.
(b)Residential. The maximum hot water temperature shall be 130°F.
(c)Multiple Type Lavatory (Group Wash Sink). For drain and water pipe sizing purposes, every 20 inches of usable length shall be considered one lavatory.
(11)Garbage/Trash Receptacle Washers.
(a) Garbage/Trash receptacle washers shall be separately trapped and vented.
(b) The fixture receiving the waste from garbage/trash receptacles shall be provided with a removable basket or strainer to prevent discharge of large particles into the building drainage system.
(c) Any water supply connection shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or Product-accepted backflow prevention device.
(12)Special Fixtures and Specialties. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily pools, aquaria, ornamental fountain basins, fish tanks and similar type fixtures when provided with water supplies, shall be protected from back siphonage. Exception: Baptistries and similar type fixtures shall be allowed to discharge separately and directly to a drywell in the ground. If discharged into a drywell, the drain would not need to be trapped or vented.
(13)Emergency Wash Systems. Wherever people are employed, emergency wash systems shall be required in all areas where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities or quick drenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate emergency use.
(a) The systems shall include but not be limited to Drench/Deluge Showers, Hand-held Body/Face Washers and Deck Mounted Drench Hoses.
(b) The systems shall be in the same room and as close to the main door as possible but in no case exceeding locations that take no more than ten seconds to reach.
(c) Safety showers shall be capable of discharging a continuous spray at a rate of 20 Gallons Per Minute for 15 minutes at a temperature between 60 °F and 100 °F and sized for two emergency showers operating simultaneously.
(d) Piping for systems shall be installed in a manner that prevents the stagnation of water. Piping from the main to each individual emergency equipment fixture connection shall not exceed a developed length of 15 feet.
(e) The permit holder shall provide the local plumbing and gas inspector with a signed document from the owner or owner's agent assuring weekly flushing operation of each fixture as required by ANSI Z-358.1 and OSHA will be of long enough duration to empty the volume of supply water from the circulated tempered piping loop main to the fixture outlet.
(f) Additional design features for emergency systems may be designed by a Massachusetts professional engineer. The design shall assure that the piping installation, including pipe sizing, dimension, and other aspects, meet the requirements for proper functioning and safety. Once the installation is complete but prior to final inspection, the installer must provide the Inspector with written certification by a Massachusetts professional engineer that the installation complies with the design drawings and specifications. The Inspector shall not be responsible for approving or inspecting design specifications but must ensure the installation adheres to the provisions of 248 CMR.
(g) In existing facilities and smaller renovation projects consisting of five or less emergency fixtures where tempered water is inaccessible, cold potable water shall be permitted with prior permission of the fire prevention safety officer.
(h) Emergency Wash Stations are required and shall be installed in the laboratory classrooms of schools, colleges, and universities where corrosive materials, flammable liquids, and/or open flame devices are utilized.
(14)Funeral Establishment Preparation Rooms. Funeral establishment preparation rooms shall comply with the provisions of 239 CMR 3.07: Preparation Room
(a) The preparation room of a Funeral establishment shall be provided with a floor drain and flushing rim sink with proper backflow protection compliant with 239 CMR 3.07(4).
(b) An additional reduced pressure zone backflow preventer shall be installed on the water distribution system to the building at the outlet side of the meter or main control valve.
(c) Emergency Wash Stations shall be installed and be compliant with the provisions of 239 CMR: Board of Registration in Embalming and Funeral Directing.
(15)Minimum Facilities.
(a) All inhabited buildings and structures shall contain plumbing facilities including persons with disabilities as required in 521 CMR: Architectural Access Board. 248 CMR 10.10 shall apply to new buildings, additions, and changes where a plumbing permit is required.
(b)Dwellings. Whenever plumbing fixtures are installed, the minimum number of each type of fixture shall comply with the requirements of 248 CMR 10.02(6)(b), 248 CMR 10.10(14): Table 1 Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy and 105 CMR 410.00: Minimum Standards of Fitness for Human Habitation State Sanitary Code, Chapter II.
(c)Establishing Fixture Requirements.
1. Total fixture requirements shall be determined by using 50% male and 50% female. The occupancy ratio of 50% for each sex shall not be required when statistical data indicates the occupancy of the facility would be other than 50% for each sex.
a. In buildings or structures containing multiple classifications under 248 CMR 10.10: Table 1, all classifications shall be satisfied when determining the total fixture requirements.
2. If a fraction should occur while determining the number of plumbing fixtures required in 248 CMR 10.10(14): Table 1 Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy, rounding up to the next fixture shall be required.
3. Separate facilities shall be provided for each sex.

Exception: In establishments other than residential where the maximum number of employees and patrons do not exceed 20 and the total gross square footage does not exceed 2,000.

4. In establishments other than residential, rest room facilities shall be clearly designated and no further than 400 feet in developed direct distance away from the regular place of daily work activity of any person for whose use it is required. Elevator usage may be taken into consideration when determining the developed direct distance. In multi-story buildings, access to the required toilet facilities shall not exceed one vertical story. Access to the required toilet facilities for customers shall not include passing through areas designated as for employee use only such as kitchens, food preparation areas, storage rooms, closets, or similar spaces. Toilet facilities accessible only to private offices shall not be included to determine compliance with 248 CMR 10.10(15).
5. In establishments other than residential or industrial where the total number of employees that can be accommodated at any one time is 20 individuals and the total gross space is less than 2,000 square feet, or do not have reasonable access (within 400 feet and on the same floor level) to core or common toilet facilities, one toilet room located within the establishment provided with the number of fixtures according to the standard set forth in 248 CMR 10.10(14): Table 1 Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy for employee facilities shall meet the minimum requirement.
6. In every business or commercial establishment where only one person is employed, there shall be one toilet and one lavatory within the establishment or a core toilet facility located within 400 feet of the establishment. The number of fixtures in the core or common toilet facilities shall be in accordance with 248 CMR 10.10(14): Table 1 Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy or Employee Toilet Facilities, Non-industrial.
7. When individual rest rooms are installed in business or commercial establishments which also contain core facilities, the individual rest rooms may not be included in the core facility fixture count requirements of 10.10(14): Table 1.
8. Additional fixtures installed over and above the requirements of 248 CMR 10.10 shall be allowed.
9. Agricultural Buildings and structures used exclusively for agriculture including, but not limited to, farming and livestock and are uninhabited shall not be required to have facilities.
a.Dairy Farms. A facility or structure where cows are kept and all or part of the dairy products produced are sold or delivered for sale. The minimum fixture requirements shall be determined using the maximum number of employees on duty at any one time.
10. For Places of Assembly, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a. The number of seats in the establishment; and
b. The maximum number of employees on duty at any one time.
c. For establishments serving food and/or beverages which may be consumed and the premises, inside and outside seating shall be included when determining fixture requirements if the outside seating is provided by the establishment for use by patrons only;
d. For places of worship which also have a function hall/multi-purpose area, the fixture requirements for the halls/areas shall be calculated separately based on the use. Core facilities shall be allowed provided enough fixtures are installed to accommodate the total occupancy for the worship area and the function hall/multi-purpose area combined, and the rest rooms are located within 40 feet within the same building. If core facilities are used, rest rooms shall be required on every other floor level.
e. For public beaches, fixture requirements shall be based on persons per parking spaces available.
11. For Places of Business, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a. The average number of patrons visiting at any one time; and
b. The maximum number of employees on duty at any one time.
12. For Educational Facilities, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a.Pre-school and Day Care.
i. The total combined number of staff and children
ii. Refer to 606 CMR 7.00: Standards for the Licensure or Approval of Family Child-care, Small Group and School Age and Large Group and School Age Child-care Programs for requirements regarding additional plumbing fixtures in this type of occupancy.
b.Public and Private Kindergarten through Post-secondary (Students). Seating capacity
c.Public and Private Kindergarten through Post-Secondary (Staff). The maximum number of staff on duty at any one time
d.Students Younger than Six Years Old.
i. Unisex/gender-neutral toilet facilities may be installed.
ii. Lavatories may be installed in classroom areas or the toilet rooms.
e. Public and private schools, kindergarten, elementary, middle, and high schools:
i. Separate toilet facilities shall be provided for teachers and other staff employees on every other floor-level.
ii. Rest rooms for students shall be provided on every floor level.
f. Post-Secondary schools:
i. Separate toilet facilities shall not be required for teachers and other staff employees
ii. Rest rooms for students shall be required on every other floor level.
g. All secondary and post-secondary schools that conduct sporting programs or physical activities on the school premises or grounds and include a gymnasium where the activities may be conducted shall provide separate men and women shower facilities to accommodate the students.
h. Where core rest rooms are installed, lavatories may be installed in an area common to both males and females directly outside the toilet facilities within the rest room area. The minimum number of lavatories shall be determined by the total fixture count as required in 248 CMR 10.10: Table 1.
13. For Industrial & Warehousing Facilities, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined using the maximum number of employees on duty at any one time.
14. For Institutional Facilities, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a. Detainees: The total number of cells in the detention area.
b. Staff: The maximum number on duty at any one time.
15. For Medical Facilities, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a.Hospitals and Nursing Homes.
i.Patients: The total number beds.
ii.Staff: The maximum number on duty at any one time.
iii.Visitors: The maximum number of seats in the waiting rooms.
b.Facilities and Offices where Procedures may be Performed.
i.Patients: The maximum number who may be in the facility at any one time.
ii.Staff: The maximum number on duty at any one time.
iii. In facilities where the maximum number of employees does not exceed 15 and the maximum number of patrons and visitors does not exceed 15, one unisex/gender-neutral rest room may be installed for staff and one unisex gender-neutral rest room for patrons provided the total gross square footage does not exceed three thousand.
iv. Hand washing facilities shall be provided in all examination rooms.
c. Facilities and offices where medical procedures would not be performed.
i.Patients and Staff: The maximum number who may be in the facility at any one time. Separate rest rooms are not required for patients and staff.
d. Accessibility to all toilet facilities shall be direct and shall not require going from one medical office through another for access.
e. Handicap accessible rest rooms for patients and visitors shall be required on every floor level.
f.Limited-service Health Clinics.
i. Toilet facilities installed in compliance with 248 CMR shall be handicap accessible and open to the public. These facilities may be located within a locked area of the facility being served or in a common core area within four hundred feet of the clinic area so long as there is signage indicating the location of said facilities.
ii. Showers shall not be required.
iii. If above ground gravity drainage is not available within ten feet, the discharge for an exam sink may be pumped.
iv. A drinking water station without a drain shall be allowed. This may be located within the existing retail establishment.
16. For Mercantile Facilities, the minimum fixture requirements for employees when the occupancy exceeds employees and patrons shall be determined using the total square footage of the building divided by 300.

Example: A building measures 360 x 320 feet: Figure the area by multiplying 360 by 320 = 115,200 square feet. Divide 115,200 by 300 = 384 occupancy. 192 males and 192 females. In covered malls and other multistory mercantile facilities, public rest rooms shall be located on every floor level.

17. For Residential, the minimum fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a. For single and multi-family dwellings follow the requirements as stated in 248 CMR 10.02(6).
b. For Hotels, Motels, Inns, Bed and Breakfast and similar facilities, fixtures requirements shall be based on the number of guest rooms.
c. For Dormitories, Sororities, Boarding Houses, Fraternities and similar facilities, fixture requirements shall be based on the number of occupants.
i. Bathrooms and rest rooms containing more than one toilet, or a combination of toilets and urinals shall be separated by walls or partitions providing privacy.
ii. Facilities utilizing core rest room and shower facilities shall be accessible from within the building and shall be placed so that passing through any part of another dwelling unit or room is not required.
iii. One laundry utility sink of every 50 persons.
iv. One washing machine connection for every ten dwelling units or fraction thereof. For purposes of 248 CMR 10.00, in post-secondary school residential dormitories, one dwelling unit shall be equivalent to four students. The washing machine connection shall be located so that each occupant in the dwelling has access to the washing machine that may be affixed to said connection.
v. Toilet facilities, shower rooms and bathing rooms for males and females shall be separate and so designated.
d. For Adult Day Care Facilities, fixture requirements shall be based on the total combined number of staff and adults. Separate facilities for staff and adults shall not be required.
e. For common areas of Assisted Living Facilities, fixture requirements shall be based on:
i. The total number of occupants;
ii. The maximum number of staff on duty at any one time;
iii. Facilities shall be located within 400 feet.
18. For Small Occupied Structures such as Ticket Booths, Guard Shacks, and similar facilities, fixture requirements shall be determined by:
a. No fixtures shall be required provided accessible rest rooms are located within 400 feet.
b. One unisex/gender-neutral rest room shall be installed if no rest rooms are located within 400 feet.
19. For unoccupied structures which may require maintenance such as pumping stations, sub-stations, and similar type facilities, one unisex/gender-neutral restroom shall be required within the facility.
20. For Facilities storing goods, vehicles, aircraft, marine, food products and similar type when no work is performed, the fixture requirements shall be based on the maximum number of people working at any one time.
(d)Handicap Toilet Facility Requirement.
1. The dimensional requirements for plumbing fixtures in public rest rooms shall be in accordance with 521 CMR 30.00: Public Toilet Rooms.
2. Unisex/gender-neutral handicap toilet facilities may be allowed by the Board through the variance process as outlined in 248 CMR 3.04(2).
a. A variance is not required if the fixtures in an existing or proposed men's and women's toilet facility and the fixtures in a Unisex/gender-neutral handicapped toilet facility meet the minimum fixture requirements of 248 CMR 10.10(14): Table 1 Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy. A Unisex/gender-neutral toilet may be counted only one time toward the total minimum fixture requirements.
b. These toilet facilities shall always be kept clear of obstructions in accordance with 105 CMR: Department of Public Health.
3. Wherever drinking water stations are provided, they shall be accessible to the physically impaired.
4. In facilities for the physically impaired, handicap toilet stalls placed within a fully compliant 248 CMR toilet facility may also provide an additional accessible handicap lavatory within the toilet stall area. The lavatory placement shall comply with the requirements of 521 CMR: Architectural Access Board.
(e)Toilet Facilities General. Toilet facilities in all commercial and public rest rooms containing more than one flushing fixture shall be equipped with a floor drain and hose connection.
(f)Bathroom Group Defined. A bathroom group shall consist of at least one bathtub or shower stall, one toilet, and one lavatory.
(g)Use of Unisex/Gender Neutral Toilet Rooms. For purposes of the minimum fixture requirements of 248 CMR, wherever 248 CMR 10.00 requires two or more toilet fixtures designated by gender, those facilities may be replaced with single use gender-neutral toilet rooms pursuant to one of the following options:
1. Every gender designated toilet fixture is replaced with an equal number of single use unisex gender-neutral toilet rooms (such that there are no gender designated fixtures); or
2. Where the code requires four or more toilet fixtures combined for males and females, gender designated fixtures may be replaced by single use unisex/gender-neutral toilet rooms in increments of two such that for every male designated fixture replaced by a unisex/gender-neutral toilet room, a female designated fixture must also be replaced by a unisex/gender-neutral toilet room, and vice-versa (e.g. instead of three men's toilets, four female toilets, there may be installed two men's toilets, three female toilets, and two single use Gender unisex/neutral toilet rooms).
(h)Multi-user/Gender Neutral Toilet Rooms. For all buildings, the minimum fixture requirements of 248 CMR may be met by the use of one or more multi-user - Gender Neutral Toilet Rooms whereby multiple users may utilize the fixtures regardless of gender. The following rules govern the use of such rooms:
1. At least one Single User/Gender - Neutral Toilet Room must be installed on the same floor and within 300 feet of a Multi-user/Gender Neutral Toilet Room;
2. Each toilet must be separated by lockable partitions that extend from floor to ceiling to provide privacy;
3.Calculating Required Fixtures. Multi-user/gender-neutral toilet rooms shall be calculated as serving an equal number of individuals per gender. Installation of multi-user gender-neutral toilet rooms does not allow for the installation of multi-user toilet rooms for one gender but not the other.
4. For conversions of existing gender specific toilet rooms to Multi-user/Gender Neutral Toilet Rooms, existing partitions that are not floor to ceiling may remain so long as they have functional locking mechanisms. New partitions installed in the future must extend from floor to ceiling.

10.10 Table 1: Minimum Facilities for Building Occupancy

CLASSIFICATION

DESCRIPTION OF USE

TOILETS

URINALS

lAVATORIES

DRINKING WATER STATIONS

BATHTUBS OR SHOWERS

OTHER FIXTURES

NOTES

Female

Male

Female

Male

Agricultural Unoccupied

Stables, Greenhouses, and similar buildings used exclusively for farming and/or livestock

Agricultural Occupied

Dairy Farms, Greenhouses and similar buildings

1-25

1-50

Up to 50%

1 per 50

1 per

50

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Places of Assembly

Theaters, Concert Venues and Auditoriums with fixed seating

1-25 up to 200

1-50 201 to 500

Over 500 add 1 for every 100

1-50 up to 200

1-100 201 to 500

Over 500 add 1 for every 100

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Nightclubs and Pubs, Lounges, Restaurants, Food Courts and Service Plazas

1-25 up to 200

1-50 201 to 500

Over 500 add 1 for every 100

1-50 up to 200

1-100 201 to 500 Over 500 add 1 for every 100

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One Mop Sink per floor

Meeting Halls, Galleries, libraries, Banquet Halls, Funeral Parlors, Gymnasiums without permanent seating.

1-25 up to 200

1-50 201 to 500

Over 500 add 1 for every 100

1-50 up to 200

1-100 201 to 500 Over 500 add 1 for every 100

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Indoor Recreational Facilities, Rinks, Swimming Pools, Gymnasiums and Others Without Spectator Seating (Patrons & Staff)

One per 40

One per 40

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One for each set of rest rooms

One per Men's Room One per Ladies Room

One Mop Sink per floor

Indoor Recreational Facilities, Rinks, Swimming Pools, Gymnasiums and Others with Spectator Seating (Patrons & Staff)

1-50 up to 200 1-100 201 to

2000

1 for each add 'l 200 over 2000

1-100 up to

200 1-200

201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 400 over 2000

Up to 67%

1-75

1-75

One for each set of rest rooms

One per Men's Room One per Ladies Room

One Mop Sink per floor

Outdoor Stadiums and Indoor Arenas for Professional Sporting Events (Patrons & Staff)

1-25 up to 200 1-50 201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 100 over 2000

1-50 up to 200

1-100 201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 200 over 2000

Up to 67%

1-75

1-75

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Quasi Professional Higher Education Outdoor Stadiums and Indoor Arenas (Patrons & Staff)

1-50 up to 200 1-100 201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 200 over 2000

1-100 up to 200 1-200 201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 400 over 2000

Up to 67%

1-75

1-75

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Secondary School Outdoor Stadiums and Indoor Arenas (Patrons & Staff)

1-60 up to 300

1 for each add 'l

150 over 300

1-120 up to 360

1 for each add 'l

150 over 360

Up to 67%

1-75

1-75

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Places of Worship

1-50

1-100

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Health Clubs and Spas With or Without Swimming Pools

1-40

1-40

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One for each set of rest rooms

One per Men's Room One per Ladies Room

One Mop Sink per floor

*One unisex shower allowed if total number of patrons and staff at any time does not exceed twenty.

Public Beaches

1-500 up to 2,000

1 for each add 'l 1000

1-1,000 up to 2,000

1 for each add 'l

2,000

Up to 67%

1-250

1-250

One per each set of restrooms

Casino Gaming Areas

1-50 up to 200 1-100 201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 200 over 2000

1-100 up to 200

1-200 201 to 2000

1 for each add 'l 400 over 2000

Up to 67%

1-75

1-75

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

Places of Business

Buildings Offering Service Type Transactions. Banks, Salons, Laundries, Veterinary Clinics, Offices, Shops, Service Stations, and similar usage (Patrons & Staff)

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 50

1-25 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 50

Up to 50%

1-50

1-50

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per floor

A single set of rest rooms may be used by patrons and employees when figuring the fixture requirements.

Educational Facilities

Public and Private Pre-School and Day Care

One per 20 Children & Staff

One per 20

Children & Staff

1 per 10

1 per 10

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

One single user rest room allowed for up to 20 children and staff combined.

Public & Private Schools. Kindergarten, Elementary, Middle & High School

1-25 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 50

1-25 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 50

Up to 50%

1 per 25

1 per 25

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

Staff

1 per 20

1 per 25

Up to 33%

1 per 20

1 per 20

Public & Private Post-Secondary Schools including Staff

1-30 up to 120

Over 120 add 1 for every 60

1-34 up to 120

Over 120 add 1 for every 80

Up to 67%

1 per 50

1 per 50

One for each set of rest rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

Industrial, Warehousing, Research & Development facilities

Buildings & warehouses where employees assemble or process products that may be stored and/or shipped

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-40 up to 120

Over 120 add 1 for every 80

Up to 67%

. per 15

1 per 15

One for each set of rest rooms

One per 20

Males and One per 20 females

One Mop sink per floor

Institutional Facilities

Correctional Facilities/Prisons

1 per cell

1 per cell

1 per Cell

1 per Cell

1 per 15 Inmates

One Mop Sink per Floor

See 013 CMR 920.08 for multiple inmates. See 920.07 for single cell

Staff

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

One per Each Set of Rest Rooms

1 Male & 1 Female

One Mop Sink per Floor

Detention Centers, Correctional Facilities and Juvenile Centers

1 per 8

1 per 8

Up to 67%

1 per 8

1 per 8

1 per Floor

1 per 8 Male 1 per 8 Female

One Mop Sink per Floor

Staff

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

One per Each

Set of Rest Rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

Medical Facilities

Hospitals & Nursing Homes, Addiction Recovery Centers, Psychiatric centers and similar Patients

1 per Room*

1 per Room*

1 per Room*

One Mop Sink per Floor

Staff

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

One per Each Set of Rest Rooms

Waiting Rooms for visitors

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

One per Each Set of Rest Rooms

Doctor/Dental offices, labs, and similar facilities where procedures may be performed.

Patients

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

One per Each Set of Rest Rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

Staff

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

Chiropractors, physical therapy and similar facilities where medical procedures are not performed***

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per 40

One per Each Set of Rest Rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

Mercantile Facilities

Retail Stores, Supermarkets, Shopping Centers, Big Box Stores Covered Malls, and similar types accessible to the public

1-25 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 100

1-50 up to 200

Over 200 add 1 for every 100

Up to 50%

1 per 100

1 per 100

One per Each Set of Rest Rooms

One Mop Sink per Floor

Residential Buildings

One and Two Family Dwellings

1 per Dwelling

1 per Dwelling

1 per Dwelling

1 Kitchen Sink per Dwelling

Laundry See 10.10 (8) (a) 1

Dwellings Three Family and Above

1 per Dwelling

1 per Dwelling

1 per Dwelling

1 Kitchen Sink per Dwelling

Laundry See 10.10.(8) (a) 2

Hotel, Motels, Inns and Similar

1 per Guest Room

1 per Guest Room

1 per Guest Room

Bed & Breakfast

1 per Every 3 Guest Rooms

1 per Every 3 Guest Rooms

1 per Every 3 Guest Rooms

Dormitories, Boarding Houses, Sororities, Fraternities, and Similar Facilities

1 per 6

1 per 8

Up to 33%

1 per 8

1 per 8

1 per 8 Male

1 per 8 Female

1 Mop Sink per floor

Custodial Adult Day Care

1 per 20 Including Staff

1 per 20 Including Staff

1 Mop Sink per floor

Assisted Living Facilities

1 per 6

1 per 8

Up to 33%

1 per 8

1 per 8

1 per 8

1 Mop Sink per floor

Staff

1-20 up to 100

Over 100 add 1 for every 40

1-25 up to 125

Over 125 add 1 for every 50

Up to 67%

1 per 40

1 per

40

Small Occupied Structures

Ticket Booths, Guard Shacks, and Similar Facilities

None required if accessible facilities are located within 400 feet

Unoccupied Structures

Pumping, Equipment, Sub-Stations, and Similar Facilities

1 Accessible unisex/gender-neutral rest room within the facility

Storage Facilities

Goods, Vehicles, Aircraft, Marine, Food Products, Appliances and Similar where no work is being performed

1 per 150

1 per 150

Up to 67%

1 per 150

1 per

150

1 per Each Set of Rest Rooms

1 Mop Sink per Floor

One single user rest room shall be allowed for up to 20 visitors and staff combined.

* Patrons and Staff may be combined to determine total number of fixtures required.

** Nursing Homes: 1 toilet and 1 lavatory with direct access from each bedroom shared by a maximum of 8 people. (May be Unisex/gender-neutral)

*** May be shared between Staff, Patients, and Visitors

248 CMR 10.10

Amended by Mass Register Issue 1331, eff. 1/27/2017.
Amended by Mass Register Issue 1334, eff. 1/27/2017.
Amended by Mass Register Issue 1442, eff. 4/30/2021.
Amended by Mass Register Issue 1510, eff. 12/8/2023.