37 Cited authorities

  1. Miranda v. Arizona

    384 U.S. 436 (1966)   Cited 52,195 times   60 Legal Analyses
    Holding that law enforcement officers must warn an individual of certain constitutional rights and the consequences of waiving those rights prior to conducting a custodial interrogation
  2. Whren v. United States

    517 U.S. 806 (1996)   Cited 7,068 times   37 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, upon observing traffic violation, officer may stop vehicle regardless of his subjective motivations, "as long as the circumstances, viewed objectively, justify that action"
  3. Terry v. Ohio

    392 U.S. 1 (1968)   Cited 33,737 times   70 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a police officer who has reasonable suspicion of criminal activity may conduct a brief investigative stop
  4. Berkemer v. McCarty

    468 U.S. 420 (1984)   Cited 4,837 times   15 Legal Analyses
    Holding the "noncoercive aspect of ordinary traffic stops prompts us to hold that persons temporarily detained pursuant to such stops are not 'in custody' for the purposes of Miranda"
  5. Rhode Island v. Innis

    446 U.S. 291 (1980)   Cited 5,331 times   12 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a police officer's subjective intent to obtain incriminatory statements is not relevant to determining whether an interrogation has occurred
  6. Davis v. United States

    512 U.S. 452 (1994)   Cited 2,570 times   25 Legal Analyses
    Holding "the suspect must unambiguously request counsel."
  7. Pennsylvania v. Mimms

    434 U.S. 106 (1977)   Cited 2,843 times   15 Legal Analyses
    Holding that police officers may order individuals to exit a vehicle during a Terry traffic stop based in part on the "inordinate risk confronting an officer as he approaches a person seated in an automobile"
  8. People v. Lopez

    71 N.Y.2d 662 (N.Y. 1988)   Cited 2,513 times   3 Legal Analyses
    In Lopez, the New York Court of Appeals recognized "the rare case" where a defendant's plea allocution "casts significant doubt upon the defendant's guilt or otherwise calls into question the voluntariness of the plea[.
  9. People v. De Bour

    40 N.Y.2d 210 (N.Y. 1976)   Cited 2,064 times   6 Legal Analyses
    In People v. LaPene, 352 N.E.2d 562 (N.Y. 1976), the New York Court of Appeals laid out a sliding scale of justifiable police intrusion, short of probable cause to arrest, which specified three distinct levels of intrusion correlating the allowable intensity of police conduct to the nature and weight of the facts precipitating the intrusion.
  10. People v. Hollman

    79 N.Y.2d 181 (N.Y. 1992)   Cited 727 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that reasonable suspicion was required before narcotics officers could approach a passenger in a bus terminal and ask for permission to search the person's bag
  11. Section 1814 - Cigarette and tobacco products tax

    N.Y. Tax Law § 1814   Cited 50 times
    Attempting to evade or defeat tax imposed on cigarettes