1 See Adjustment of Dollar Amounts notes below.
11 U.S.C. § 547
HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES
LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTSNo limitation is provided for payments to commodity brokers as in section 766 of the Senate amendment other than the amendment to section transfer that is payment of a tax claim owing to a governmental unit. As provided, section 106(c) of the House amendment overrules contrary language in the House report with the result that the Government is subject to avoidance of preferential transfers.Contrary to language contained in the House report, payment of a debt by means of a check is equivalent to a cash payment, unless the check is dishonored. Payment is considered to be made when the check is delivered for purposes of sections 547(c)(1) and (2).Section 547(c)(6) of the House bill is deleted and is treated in a different fashion in section 553 of the House amendment.Section 547(c)(6) represents a modification of a similar provision contained in the House bill and Senate amendment. The exception relating to satisfaction of a statutory lien is deleted. The exception for a lien created under title 11 is deleted since such a lien is a statutory lien that will not be avoidable in a subsequent bankruptcy.Section 547(e)(1)(B) is adopted from the House bill and Senate amendment without change. It is intended that the simple contract test used in this section will be applied as under section 544(a)(1) not to require a creditor to perfect against a creditor on a simple contract in the event applicable law makes such perfection impossible. For example, a purchaser from a debtor at an improperly noticed bulk sale may take subject to the rights of a creditor on a simple contract of the debtor for 1 year after the bulk sale. Since the purchaser cannot perfect against such a creditor on a simple contract, he should not be held responsible for failing to do the impossible. In the event the debtor goes into bankruptcy within a short time after the bulk sale, the trustee should not be able to use the avoiding powers under section 544(a)(1) or 547 merely because State law has made some transfers of personal property subject to the rights of a creditor on a simple contract to acquire a judicial lien with no opportunity to perfect against such a creditor.Preferences: The House amendment deletes from the category of transfers on account of antecedent debts which may be avoided under the preference rules, section 547(b)(2), the exception in the Senate amendment for taxes owed to governmental authorities. However, for purposes of the "ordinary course" exception to the preference rules contained in section 547(c)(2), the House amendment specifies that the 45-day period referred to in section 547(c)(2)(B) is to begin running, in the case of taxes from the last due date, including extensions, of the return with respect to which the tax payment was made.of title 11. Section 547(c)(2) protects most payments.Section 547(b)(2) of the House amendment adopts a provision contained in the House bill and rejects an alternative contained in the Senate amendment relating to the avoidance of a preferential
SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989This section is a substantial modification of present law. It modernizes the preference provisions and brings them more into conformity with commercial practice and the Uniform Commercial Code.Subsection (a) contains three definitions. Inventory, new value, and receivable are defined in their ordinary senses, but are defined to avoid any confusion or uncertainty surrounding the terms.Subsection (b) is the operative provision of the section. It authorizes the trustee to avoid a transfer if five conditions are met. These are the five elements of a preference action. First, the transfer must be to or for the benefit of a creditor. Second, the transfer must be for or on account of an antecedent debt owed by the debtor before the transfer was made. Third, the transfer must have been made when the debtor was insolvent. Fourth, the transfer must have been made during the 90 days immediately preceding the commencement of the case. If the transfer was to an insider, the trustee may avoid the transfer if it was made during the period that begins one year before the filing of the petition and ends 90 days before the filing, if the insider to whom the transfer was made had reasonable cause to believe the debtor was insolvent at the time the transfer was made.Finally, the transfer must enable the creditor to whom or for whose benefit it was made to receive a greater percentage of his claim than he would receive under the distributive provisions of the bankruptcy code. Specifically, the creditor must receive more than he would if the case were a liquidation case, if the transfer had not been made, and if the creditor received payment of the debt to the extent provided by the provisions of the code.The phrasing of the final element changes the application of the greater percentage test from that employed under current law. Under this language, the court must focus on the relative distribution between classes as well as the amount that will be received by the members of the class of which the creditor is a member. The language also requires the court to focus on the allowability of the claim for which the preference was made. If the claim would have been entirely disallowed, for example, then the test of paragraph (5) will be met, because the creditor would have received nothing under the distributive provisions of the bankruptcy code.The trustee may avoid a transfer of a lien under this section even if the lien has been enforced by sale before the commencement of the case,Subsection (b)(2) of this section in effect exempts from the preference rules payments by the debtor of tax liabilities, regardless of their priority status.Subsection (c) contains exceptions to the trustee's avoiding power. If a creditor can qualify under any one of the exceptions, then he is protected to that extent. If he can qualify under several, he is protected by each to the extent that he can qualify under each.The first exception is for a transfer that was intended by all parties to be a contemporaneous exchange for new value, and was in fact substantially contemporaneous. Normally, a check is a credit transaction. However, for the purposes of this paragraph, a transfer involving a check is considered to be "intended to be contemporaneous", and if the check is presented for payment in the normal course of affairs, which the Uniform Commercial Code specifies as 30 days, U.C.C. §3-503(2)(a), that will amount to a transfer that is "in fact substantially contemporaneous."The second exception protects transfers in the ordinary course of business (or of financial affairs, where a business is not involved) transfers. For the case of a consumer, the paragraph uses the phrase "financial affairs" to include such nonbusiness activities as payment of monthly utility bills. If the debt on account of which the transfer was made was incurred in the ordinary course of both the debtor and the transferee, if the transfer was made not later than 45 days after the debt was incurred, if the transfer itself was made in the ordinary course of both the debtor and the transferee, and if the transfer was made according to ordinary business terms, then the transfer is protected. The purpose of this exception is to leave undisturbed normal financial relations, because it does not detract from the general policy of the preference section to discourage unusual action by either the debtor or his creditors during the debtor's slide into bankruptcy.The third exception is for enabling loans in connection with which the debtor acquires the property that the loan enabled him to purchase after the loan is actually made.The fourth exception codifies the net result rule in section 60c of current law [section 96(c) of former title 11]. If the creditor and the debtor have more than one exchange during the 90-day period, the exchanges are netted out according to the formula in paragraph (4). Any new value that the creditor advances must be unsecured in order for it to qualify under this exception.Paragraph (5) codifies the improvement in position test, and thereby overrules such cases as DuBay v. Williams, 417 F.2d 1277 (C.A.9, 1966), and Grain Merchants of Indiana, Inc. v. Union Bank and Savings Co., 408 F.2d 209 (C.A.7, 1969). A creditor with a security interest in a floating mass, such as inventory or accounts receivable, is subject to preference attack to the extent he improves his position during the 90-day period before bankruptcy. The test is a two-point test, and requires determination of the secured creditor's position 90 days before the petition and on the date of the petition. If new value was first given after 90 days before the case, the date on which it was first given substitutes for the 90-day point.Paragraph (6) excepts statutory liens validated under section 545 from preference attack. It also protects transfers in satisfaction of such liens, and the fixing of a lien under section 365(j), which protects a vendee whose contract to purchase real property from the debtor is rejected.Subsection (d), derived from section 67a of the Bankruptcy Act [section 107(a) of former title 11], permits the trustee to avoid a transfer to reimburse a surety that posts a bond to dissolve a judicial lien that would have been avoidable under this section. The second sentence protects the surety from double liability.Subsection (e) determines when a transfer is made for the purposes of the preference section. Paragraph (1) defines when a transfer is perfected. For real property, a transfer is perfected when it is valid against a bona fide purchaser. For personal property and fixtures, a transfer is perfected when it is valid against a creditor on a simple contract that obtains a judicial lien after the transfer is perfected. "Simple contract" as used here is derived from Bankruptcy Act §60a(4) [section 96(a)(4) of former title 11]. Paragraph (2) specifies that a transfer is made when it takes effect between the transferor and the transferee if it is perfected at or within 10 days after that time. Otherwise, it is made when the transfer is perfected. If it is not perfected before the commencement of the case, it is made immediately before the commencement of the case. Paragraph (3) specifies that a transfer is not made until the debtor has acquired rights in the property transferred. This provision, more than any other in the section, overrules DuBay and Grain Merchants, and in combination with subsection (b)(2), overrules In re King-Porter Co., 446 F.2d 722 (5th Cir. 1971).Subsection (e) is designed to reach the different results under the 1962 version of Article 9 of the U.C.C. and under the 1972 version because different actions are required under each version in order to make a security agreement effective between the parties.Subsection (f) creates a presumption of insolvency for the 90 days preceding the bankruptcy case. The presumption is as defined in Rule 301 of the Federal Rules of Evidence, made applicable in bankruptcy cases by sections 224 and 225 of the bill. The presumption requires the party against whom the presumption exists to come forward with some evidence to rebut the presumption, but the burden of proof remains on the party in whose favor the presumption exists.
AMENDMENTS2019-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116-54 inserted ", based on reasonable due diligence in the circumstances of the case and taking into account a party's known or reasonably knowable affirmative defenses under subsection (c)," after "may" in introductory provisions.2005-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109-8, §1213(a)(1), substituted "subsections (c) and (i)" for "subsection (c)" in introductory provisions.Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 109-8, §409(1), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "to the extent that such transfer was-"(A) in payment of a debt incurred by the debtor in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the transferee;"(B) made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the transferee; and"(C) made according to ordinary business terms;".Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 109-8, §1222, substituted "30 days" for "20 days".Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 109-8, §217, amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "to the extent such transfer was a bona fide payment of a debt to a spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor, for alimony to, maintenance for, or support of such spouse or child, in connection with a separation agreement, divorce decree or other order of a court of record, determination made in accordance with State or territorial law by a governmental unit, or property settlement agreement, but not to the extent that such debt-"(A) is assigned to another entity, voluntarily, by operation of law, or otherwise; or"(B) includes a liability designated as alimony, maintenance, or support, unless such liability is actually in the nature of alimony, maintenance or support; or".Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 109-8, §409(2), (3), added par. (9).Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109-8, §403, substituted "30" for "10" wherever appearing.Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109-8, §201(b), added subsec. (h).Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 109-8, §1213(a)(2), added subsec. (i).1994-Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103-394, §203(1), substituted "20" for "10".Subsec. (c)(7), (8). Pub. L. 103-394, §304(f), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103-394, §203(2), inserted before semicolon at end ", except as provided in subsection (c)(3)(B)".1986-Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 99-554 inserted "and" after the semicolon.1984-Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(a)(1), inserted "including proceeds of such property," after "law,".Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(a)(2), struck out ", without penalty" after "any extension", and inserted "without penalty" after "payable".Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(b)(1), substituted "of an interest of the debtor in property" for "of property of the debtor" in provisions preceding par. (1).Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(b)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "between 90 days and one year before the date of the filing of the petition, if such creditor, at the time of such transfer-"(i) was an insider; and"(ii) had reasonable cause to believe the debtor was insolvent at the time of such transfer; and".Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(d)(1), inserted "by the debtor" after "incurred".Subsec. (c)(2)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(c), struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: "made not later than 45 days after such debt was incurred;" and redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively.Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(d)(2), substituted "that creates" for "of".Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(d)(3), inserted "on or" after "perfected", and substituted "the debtor receives possession of such property" for "such security interest attaches".Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(d)(4), substituted "that creates" for "of", and "all security interests" for "all security interest".Subsec. (c)(5)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(d)(5), substituted "or" for "and".Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 98-353, §310(3), added par. (7).Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(e), substituted "The" for "A" before "trustee may avoid", inserted "an interest in" after "transfer of", inserted "to or for the benefit of a surety" after "transferred", and inserted "such" after "reimbursement of".Subsec. (e)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(f), substituted "or" for "and".Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98-353, §462(g), added subsec. (g).
STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2019 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 116-54 effective 180 days after Aug. 23, 2019, see section 5 of Pub. L. 116-54 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 109-8, title XII, §1213(b), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 195, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any case that is pending or commenced on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 20, 2005]."Amendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1986 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 99-554 effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, see section 302(a) of Pub. L. 99-554 set out as a note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353 set out as a note under sectionof this title.
COURT RULES AND JUDICIAL DOCUMENTS
ADJUSTMENT OF DOLLAR AMOUNTSThe dollar amounts specified in this section were adjusted by notices of the Judicial Conference of the United States pursuant to sectionof this title as follows:By notice dated Feb. 5, 2019, 84 F.R. 3488, effective Apr. 1, 2019, in subsec. (c)(9), dollar amount "6,425" was adjusted to "6,825". See notice of the Judicial Conference of the United States set out as a note under section of this title.By notice dated Feb. 16, 2016, 81 F.R. 8748, effective Apr. 1, 2016, in subsec. (c)(9), dollar amount "6,225" was adjusted to "6,425".By notice dated Feb. 12, 2013, 78 F.R. 12089, effective Apr. 1, 2013, in subsec. (c)(9), dollar amount "5,850" was adjusted to "6,225".By notice dated Feb. 19, 2010, 75 F.R. 8747, effective Apr. 1, 2010, in subsec. (c)(9), dollar amount "5,475" was adjusted to "5,850".By notice dated Feb. 7, 2007, 72 F.R. 7082, effective Apr. 1, 2007, in subsec. (c)(9), dollar amount "5,000" was adjusted to "5,475".
- The term "claim" means-(A) right to payment, whether or not such right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured; or(B) right to an equitable remedy for breach of performance if such breach gives rise to a right to payment, whether or not such right to an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, secured, or unsecured.
- The term "debt" means liability on a claim.(12A) The term "debt relief agency" means any person who provides any bankruptcy assistance to an assisted person in return for the payment of money or other valuable consideration, or who is a bankruptcy petition preparer under section 110, but does not include-(A) any person who is an officer, director, employee, or agent of a person who provides such assistance or of the bankruptcy petition preparer;(B) a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;(C) a creditor of such assisted person, to the extent that the creditor is assisting such assisted person to restructure any debt owed by such assisted person to the creditor;(D) a depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) or any Federal credit union or State credit union (as those terms are defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act), or any affiliate or subsidiary of such depository institution or credit union; or(E) an author, publisher, distributor, or seller of works subject to copyright protection under title 17, when acting in such capacity.
- The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced.(13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"-(A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and(B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.
- domestic support obligation
- The term "domestic support obligation" means a debt that accrues before, on, or after the date of the order for relief in a case under this title, including interest that accrues on that debt as provided under applicable nonbankruptcy law notwithstanding any other provision of this title, that is-(A) owed to or recoverable by-(i) a spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor or such child's parent, legal guardian, or responsible relative; or(ii) a governmental unit;(B) in the nature of alimony, maintenance, or support (including assistance provided by a governmental unit) of such spouse, former spouse, or child of the debtor or such child's parent, without regard to whether such debt is expressly so designated;(C) established or subject to establishment before, on, or after the date of the order for relief in a case under this title, by reason of applicable provisions of-(i) a separation agreement, divorce decree, or property settlement agreement;(ii) an order of a court of record; or(iii) a determination made in accordance with applicable nonbankruptcy law by a governmental unit; and(D) not assigned to a nongovernmental entity, unless that obligation is assigned voluntarily by the spouse, former spouse, child of the debtor, or such child's parent, legal guardian, or responsible relative for the purpose of collecting the debt.
- The term "entity" includes person, estate, trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
- governmental unit
- The term "governmental unit" means United States; State; Commonwealth; District; Territory; municipality; foreign state; department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States (but not a United States trustee while serving as a trustee in a case under this title), a State, a Commonwealth, a District, a Territory, a municipality, or a foreign state; or other foreign or domestic government.(27A) The term "health care business"-(A) means any public or private entity (without regard to whether that entity is organized for profit or not for profit) that is primarily engaged in offering to the general public facilities and services for-(i) the diagnosis or treatment of injury, deformity, or disease; and(ii) surgical, drug treatment, psychiatric, or obstetric care; and(B) includes-(i) any-(I) general or specialized hospital;(II) ancillary ambulatory, emergency, or surgical treatment facility;(III) hospice;(IV) home health agency; and(V) other health care institution that is similar to an entity referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), or (IV); and(ii) any long-term care facility, including any-(I) skilled nursing facility;(II) intermediate care facility;(III) assisted living facility;(IV) home for the aged;(V) domiciliary care facility; and(VI) health care institution that is related to a facility referred to in subclause (I), (II), (III), (IV), or (V), if that institution is primarily engaged in offering room, board, laundry, or personal assistance with activities of daily living and incidentals to activities of daily living.(27B) The term "incidental property" means, with respect to a debtor's principal residence-(A) property commonly conveyed with a principal residence in the area where the real property is located;(B) all easements, rights, appurtenances, fixtures, rents, royalties, mineral rights, oil or gas rights or profits, water rights, escrow funds, or insurance proceeds; and(C) all replacements or additions.
- The term "insider" includes-(A) if the debtor is an individual-(i) relative of the debtor or of a general partner of the debtor;(ii) partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;(iii) general partner of the debtor; or(iv) corporation of which the debtor is a director, officer, or person in control;(B) if the debtor is a corporation-(i) director of the debtor;(ii) officer of the debtor;(iii) person in control of the debtor;(iv) partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;(v) general partner of the debtor; or(vi) relative of a general partner, director, officer, or person in control of the debtor;(C) if the debtor is a partnership-(i) general partner in the debtor;(ii) relative of a general partner in, general partner of, or person in control of the debtor;(iii) partnership in which the debtor is a general partner;(iv) general partner of the debtor; or(v) person in control of the debtor;(D) if the debtor is a municipality, elected official of the debtor or relative of an elected official of the debtor;(E) affiliate, or insider of an affiliate as if such affiliate were the debtor; and(F) managing agent of the debtor.
- The term "insolvent" means-(A) with reference to an entity other than a partnership and a municipality, financial condition such that the sum of such entity's debts is greater than all of such entity's property, at a fair valuation, exclusive of-(i) property transferred, concealed, or removed with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud such entity's creditors; and(ii) property that may be exempted from property of the estate under section 522 of this title;(B) with reference to a partnership, financial condition such that the sum of such partnership's debts is greater than the aggregate of, at a fair valuation-(i) all of such partnership's property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in subparagraph (A)(i) of this paragraph; and(ii) the sum of the excess of the value of each general partner's nonpartnership property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, over such partner's nonpartnership debts; and(C) with reference to a municipality, financial condition such that the municipality is-(i) generally not paying its debts as they become due unless such debts are the subject of a bona fide dispute; or(ii) unable to pay its debts as they become due.
- judicial lien
- The term "judicial lien" means lien obtained by judgment, levy, sequestration, or other legal or equitable process or proceeding.
- The term "lien" means charge against or interest in property to secure payment of a debt or performance of an obligation.
- The term "petition" means petition filed under section 301, 302, 303 and 3 1504 of this title, as the case may be, commencing a case under this title.(42A) The term "production payment" means a term overriding royalty satisfiable in cash or in kind-(A) contingent on the production of a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon from particular real property; and(B) from a specified volume, or a specified value, from the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon produced from such property, and determined without regard to production costs.
- The term "purchaser" means transferee of a voluntary transfer, and includes immediate or mediate transferee of such a transferee.
- The term "relative" means individual related by affinity or consanguinity within the third degree as determined by the common law, or individual in a step or adoptive relationship within such third degree.
- security agreement
- The term "security agreement" means agreement that creates or provides for a security interest.
- security interest
- The term "security interest" means lien created by an agreement.(51A) The term "settlement payment" means, for purposes of the forward contract provisions of this title, a preliminary settlement payment, a partial settlement payment, an interim settlement payment, a settlement payment on account, a final settlement payment, a net settlement payment, or any other similar payment commonly used in the forward contract trade.(51B) The term "single asset real estate" means real property constituting a single property or project, other than residential real property with fewer than 4 residential units, which generates substantially all of the gross income of a debtor who is not a family farmer and on which no substantial business is being conducted by a debtor other than the business of operating the real property and activities incidental thereto.(51C) The term "small business case" means a case filed under chapter 11 of this title in which the debtor is a small business debtor and has not elected that subchapter V of chapter 11 of this title shall apply.(51D) The term "small business debtor"-(A) subject to subparagraph (B), means a person engaged in commercial or business activities (including any affiliate of such person that is also a debtor under this title and excluding a person whose primary activity is the business of owning single asset real estate) that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts as of the date of the filing of the petition or the date of the order for relief in an amount not more than $2,000,000 1 (excluding debts owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders) not less than 50 percent of which arose from the commercial or business activities of the debtor; and(B) does not include-(i) any member of a group of affiliated debtors that has aggregate noncontingent liquidated secured and unsecured debts in an amount greater than $2,000,000 1 (excluding debt owed to 1 or more affiliates or insiders);(ii) any debtor that is a corporation subject to the reporting requirements under section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 15 U.S.C. 78m, 78o(d) ); or(iii) any debtor that is an affiliate of an issuer (as defined in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 ( 15 U.S.C. 78c )).
- The term "transfer" means-(A) the creation of a lien;(B) the retention of title as a security interest;(C) the foreclosure of a debtor's equity of redemption; or(D) each mode, direct or indirect, absolute or conditional, voluntary or involuntary, of disposing of or parting with-(i) property; or(ii) an interest in property.(54A) The term "uninsured State member bank" means a State member bank (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) the deposits of which are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.