11 U.S.C. § 1201

Current through P.L. 117-164 (published on www.congress.gov on
Section 1201 - Stay of action against codebtor
(a) Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c) of this section, after the order for relief under this chapter, a creditor may not act, or commence or continue any civil action, to collect all or any part of a consumer debt of the debtor from any individual that is liable on such debt with the debtor, or that secured such debt, unless-
(1) such individual became liable on or secured such debt in the ordinary course of such individual's business; or
(2) the case is closed, dismissed, or converted to a case under chapter 7 of this title.
(b) A creditor may present a negotiable instrument, and may give notice of dishonor of such an instrument.
(c) On request of a party in interest and after notice and a hearing, the court shall grant relief from the stay provided by subsection (a) of this section with respect to a creditor, to the extent that-
(1) as between the debtor and the individual protected under subsection (a) of this section, such individual received the consideration for the claim held by such creditor;
(2) the plan filed by the debtor proposes not to pay such claim; or
(3) such creditor's interest would be irreparably harmed by continuation of such stay.
(d) Twenty days after the filing of a request under subsection (c)(2) of this section for relief from the stay provided by subsection (a) of this section, such stay is terminated with respect to the party in interest making such request, unless the debtor or any individual that is liable on such debt with the debtor files and serves upon such party in interest a written objection to the taking of the proposed action.

11 U.S.C. § 1201

Added and amended Pub. L. 99-554, title II, §255, title III, §302(f), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3105, 3124; Pub. L. 103-65, §1, Aug. 6, 1993, 107 Stat. 311; Pub. L. 105-277, div. C, title I, §149(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-610; Pub. L. 106-5, §1(1), (2), Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106-70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107-8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107-17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107-170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107-171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107-377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108-73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108-369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749; Pub. L. 109-8, title X, §1001(a)(1), (c), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186.

EDITORIAL NOTES

CODIFICATIONFor repeal of section effective Oct. 1, 1998, and subsequent reenactment of section, see note set out preceding this section.

STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2004 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 108-369, §2(b), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] are deemed to have taken effect on January 1, 2004."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2003 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 108-73, §2(b), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] take effect on July 1, 2003."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 107-377, §2(b), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on January 1, 2003." Pub. L. 107-171, title X, §10814(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on June 1, 2002." Pub. L. 107-170, §2, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on October 1, 2001."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2001 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 107-17, §2, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on June 1, 2001." Pub. L. 107-8, §2, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on July 1, 2000."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1999 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 106-70, §2, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1999." Pub. L. 106-5, §2, Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 1202 to 1208 and 1221 to 1231 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect on April 1, 1999."

EFFECTIVE DATEChapter effective 30 days after Oct. 27, 1986, but not applicable to cases commenced under this title before that date, see section 302(a), (c)(1) of Pub. L. 99-554 set out in an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment; Transition and Administrative Provisions note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

REPEAL, REENACTMENT, AND TERMINATION OF CHAPTER Pub. L. 109-8, title X, §1001(a), (b), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 185, 186, provided that:"(a) REENACTMENT.-"(1) IN GENERAL.-Chapter 12 of title 11, United States Code, as reenacted by section 149 of division C of the Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999 ( Public Law 105-277) [set out as a note below], and as in effect on June 30, 2005, is hereby reenacted."(2) EFFECTIVE DATE OF REENACTMENT.-Paragraph (1) shall take effect on July 1, 2005."(b) AMENDMENTS-Chapter 12 of title 11, United States Code, as reenacted by subsection (a), is amended by this Act [see Tables for classification]." Pub. L. 105-277, div. C, title I, §149, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681-610, as amended by Pub. L. 106-5, §1, Mar. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 106-70, §1, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1031; Pub. L. 107-8, §1, May 11, 2001, 115 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 107-17, §1, June 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 151; Pub. L. 107-170, §1, May 7, 2002, 116 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 107-171, title X, §10814(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 532; Pub. L. 107-377, §2(a), Dec. 19, 2002, 116 Stat. 3115; Pub. L. 108-73, §2(a), Aug. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 108-369, §2(a), Oct. 25, 2004, 118 Stat. 1749, provided that:"(a) Chapter 12 of title 11 of the United States Code, as in effect on December 31, 2003, is hereby reenacted for the period beginning on January 1, 2004, and ending on July 1, 2005."(b) All cases commenced or pending under chapter 12 of title 11, United States Code, as reenacted under subsection (a), and all matters and proceedings in or relating to such cases, shall be conducted and determined under such chapter as if such chapter were continued in effect after July 1, 2005. The substantive rights of parties in connection with such cases, matters, and proceedings shall continue to be governed under the laws applicable to such cases, matters, and proceedings as if such chapter were continued in effect after July 1, 2005."Chapter was repealed Oct. 1, 1998, except that cases commenced or pending under this chapter, and all matters and proceedings in or relating to such cases, were to be conducted and determined as if this chapter had not been repealed, and substantive rights of parties in connection with such cases, matters, and proceedings were to continue to be governed under the laws applicable to such cases, matters, and proceedings as if this chapter had not been repealed, see section 302(f) of Pub. L. 99-554 as amended, formerly set out in an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 581 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

claim
The term "claim" means-(A) right to payment, whether or not such right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured; or(B) right to an equitable remedy for breach of performance if such breach gives rise to a right to payment, whether or not such right to an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, secured, or unsecured.
consumer debt
The term "consumer debt" means debt incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose.
debt
The term "debt" means liability on a claim.(12A) The term "debt relief agency" means any person who provides any bankruptcy assistance to an assisted person in return for the payment of money or other valuable consideration, or who is a bankruptcy petition preparer under section 110, but does not include-(A) any person who is an officer, director, employee, or agent of a person who provides such assistance or of the bankruptcy petition preparer;(B) a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;(C) a creditor of such assisted person, to the extent that the creditor is assisting such assisted person to restructure any debt owed by such assisted person to the creditor;(D) a depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) or any Federal credit union or State credit union (as those terms are defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act), or any affiliate or subsidiary of such depository institution or credit union; or(E) an author, publisher, distributor, or seller of works subject to copyright protection under title 17, when acting in such capacity.
debtor
The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced.(13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"-(A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and(B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.