5 Cited authorities

  1. Scales v. United States

    367 U.S. 203 (1961)   Cited 379 times
    Holding that a statute criminalizing membership in an organization offends due process if it "impermissibly imputes guilt to an individual merely on the basis of his associations and sympathies, rather than because of some concrete personal involvement in criminal conduct"
  2. People v. Ledesma

    16 Cal.4th 90 (Cal. 1997)   Cited 123 times
    Noting that "the 'shall'/'may' dichotomy . . . is not a fixed rule of statutory construction. Moreover, unlike some codes that expressly define 'shall' as mandatory and 'may' as permissive, the Penal Code provides only that '[w]ords and phrases must be construed according to the context and the approved usage of the language . . . .' (§ 7, subd. 16.)."
  3. Jevne v. Superior Court

    35 Cal.4th 935 (Cal. 2005)   Cited 57 times
    Acknowledging commission's reports as evidence of legislative intent
  4. People v. Mirmirani

    30 Cal.3d 375 (Cal. 1981)   Cited 56 times
    Stating that statutes that proscribe threats "must be narrowly directed only to threats which truly pose a danger to society"
  5. People v. Snyder

    22 Cal.4th 304 (Cal. 2000)   Cited 16 times
    Taking judicial notice of ballot arguments regarding statewide proposition as legislative history and aid for interpretation