138 Cited authorities

  1. Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly

    550 U.S. 544 (2007)   Cited 270,095 times   367 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a complaint's allegations should "contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to 'state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face' "
  2. Saucier v. Katz

    533 U.S. 194 (2001)   Cited 20,338 times   9 Legal Analyses
    Holding when a defendant seeks qualified immunity, "a ruling on that issue should be made early in the proceedings so that the costs and expenses of trial are avoided where the defense is dispositive."
  3. Heck v. Humphrey

    512 U.S. 477 (1994)   Cited 29,539 times   25 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a Section 1983 plaintiff may not seek damages for an allegedly unconstitutional conviction or sentence unless the conviction or sentence has been invalidated
  4. Harlow v. Fitzgerald

    457 U.S. 800 (1982)   Cited 31,665 times   11 Legal Analyses
    Holding that public officials are entitled to a "qualified immunity" from "liability for civil damages insofar as their conduct does not violate clearly established . . . rights of which a reasonable person would have known"
  5. Kentucky v. Graham

    473 U.S. 159 (1985)   Cited 19,428 times   1 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "an official-capacity suit is, in all respects other than name, to be treated as a suit against the entity," and that "a plaintiff seeking to recover on a damages judgment in an official-capacity suit must look to the government entity itself"
  6. County of Sacramento v. Lewis

    523 U.S. 833 (1998)   Cited 8,783 times   7 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "only a purpose to cause harm unrelated to the legitimate object of arrest will satisfy the element of arbitrary conduct shocking to the conscience, necessary for a due process violation"
  7. Papasan v. Allain

    478 U.S. 265 (1986)   Cited 16,877 times   6 Legal Analyses
    Holding that Ex parte Young would not support a suit against a state for ongoing liability for an alleged past breach of trust, since "continuing payment of the income from the lost corpus is essentially equivalent in economic terms to a one-time restoration of the lost corpus itself"
  8. Anderson v. Creighton

    483 U.S. 635 (1987)   Cited 15,516 times   6 Legal Analyses
    Holding that an officer is entitled to qualified immunity if "a reasonable officer could have believed" that the search was lawful "in light of clearly established law and the information the searching officers possessed"
  9. Christopher v. Harbury

    536 U.S. 403 (2002)   Cited 5,141 times
    Holding Verdugo-Urquidez and Eisentrager foreclosed due process claim for actions taken against alien abroad
  10. Rumsfeld v. Padilla

    542 U.S. 426 (2004)   Cited 4,535 times   3 Legal Analyses
    Holding that jurisdiction under § 2241(b) lies only in the district of confinement
  11. Rule 12 - Defenses and Objections: When and How Presented; Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings; Consolidating Motions; Waiving Defenses; Pretrial Hearing

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 12   Cited 349,819 times   936 Legal Analyses
    Granting the court discretion to exclude matters outside the pleadings presented to the court in defense of a motion to dismiss
  12. Section 2241 - Power to grant writ

    28 U.S.C. § 2241   Cited 81,258 times   55 Legal Analyses
    Granting courts authority to determine whether detention is "in violation of the . . . laws . . . of the United States"
  13. Rule 4 - Summons

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 4   Cited 70,198 times   126 Legal Analyses
    Holding that if defendant is not served within 90 days after the complaint is filed, the court—on a motion, or on its own following notice to the plaintiff—must dismiss the action without prejudice against that defendant or order that service be made by a certain time
  14. Section 1391 - Venue generally

    28 U.S.C. § 1391   Cited 28,184 times   198 Legal Analyses
    Finding that venue lies where a "substantial part of the events or omissions giving rise to the claim" occurred
  15. Section 371 - Conspiracy to commit offense or to defraud United States

    18 U.S.C. § 371   Cited 21,578 times   140 Legal Analyses
    Requiring proof of an "act to effect the object of the conspiracy"
  16. Section 2 - Judicial Power and Jurisdiction

    U.S. Const. art. III, § 2   Cited 10,668 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Granting federal courts power only to resolve “cases” and “controversies”
  17. Section 8 - Powers of Congress

    U.S. Const. art. I, § 8   Cited 7,004 times   31 Legal Analyses
    Granting Congress the power to “provide for the common Defence,” to “regulate Commerce with foreign Nations,” and to “establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization”
  18. Section 2000bb - Congressional findings and declaration of purposes

    42 U.S.C. § 2000bb   Cited 1,546 times   18 Legal Analyses
    Finding that in Smith, "the Supreme Court virtually eliminated the requirement that the government justify burdens on religious exercise imposed by laws neutral toward religion"
  19. Section 2 - Powers and Duties of the President

    U.S. Const. art. II, § 2   Cited 1,300 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Granting to the President authority to "make Treaties" and "appoint Ambassadors" and serve as "Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States"
  20. Section 956 - Conspiracy to kill, kidnap, maim, or injure persons or damage property in a foreign country

    18 U.S.C. § 956   Cited 504 times
    Imposing punishment where a conspirator "commits an act within the jurisdiction of the United States to effect any object of the conspiracy"