59 Cited authorities

  1. Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly

    550 U.S. 544 (2007)   Cited 267,331 times   365 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a complaint's allegations should "contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to 'state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face' "
  2. Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc.

    477 U.S. 242 (1986)   Cited 236,482 times   38 Legal Analyses
    Holding that summary judgment is not appropriate if "the dispute about a material fact is ‘genuine,’ that is, if the evidence is such that a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party"
  3. Celotex Corp. v. Catrett

    477 U.S. 317 (1986)   Cited 216,533 times   40 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a movant's summary judgment motion should be granted "against a [nonmovant] who fails to make a showing sufficient to establish the existence of an element essential to that party's case, and on which that party will bear the burden of proof at trial"
  4. Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio

    475 U.S. 574 (1986)   Cited 113,238 times   38 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, on summary judgment, antitrust plaintiffs "must show that the inference of conspiracy is reasonable in light of the competing inferences of independent action or collusive action that could not have harmed" them
  5. Univ. of Tex. Sw. Med. Ctr. v. Nassar

    570 U.S. 338 (2013)   Cited 5,222 times   78 Legal Analyses
    Holding that application of the " ‘because’ of" requirement of Title VII's antiretaliation provision requires proof of "but-for" causation
  6. McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green

    411 U.S. 792 (1973)   Cited 52,248 times   95 Legal Analyses
    Holding in employment discrimination case that statistical evidence of employer's general policy and practice may be relevant circumstantial evidence of discriminatory intent behind individual employment decision
  7. Faragher v. Boca Raton

    524 U.S. 775 (1998)   Cited 9,291 times   100 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, to be actionable, the alleged conduct "must be extreme" and "the sporadic use of abusive language, gender-related jokes, and occasional teasing" are not enough
  8. Tex. Dept. of Cmty. Affairs v. Burdine

    450 U.S. 248 (1981)   Cited 19,960 times   9 Legal Analyses
    Holding in the Title VII context that the plaintiff's prima facie case creates "a legally mandatory, rebuttable presumption" that shifts the burden of proof to the employer, and "if the employer is silent in the face of the presumption, the court must enter judgment for the plaintiff"
  9. Conley v. Gibson

    355 U.S. 41 (1957)   Cited 58,536 times   25 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "a complaint should not be dismissed for failure to state a claim unless it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim which would entitle him to relief"
  10. Allen v. McCurry

    449 U.S. 90 (1980)   Cited 5,765 times   3 Legal Analyses
    Holding that under res judicata, parties may not "relitigat[e] issues that were or could have been raised" in a prior action
  11. Section 1983 - Civil action for deprivation of rights

    42 U.S.C. § 1983   Cited 487,887 times   692 Legal Analyses
    Holding liable any state actor who "subjects, or causes [a person] to be subjected" to a constitutional violation
  12. Rule 12 - Defenses and Objections: When and How Presented; Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings; Consolidating Motions; Waiving Defenses; Pretrial Hearing

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 12   Cited 346,675 times   923 Legal Analyses
    Granting the court discretion to exclude matters outside the pleadings presented to the court in defense of a motion to dismiss
  13. Rule 56 - Summary Judgment

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 56   Cited 329,129 times   158 Legal Analyses
    Holding a party may move for summary judgment on any part of any claim or defense in the lawsuit
  14. Section 621 - Congressional statement of findings and purpose

    29 U.S.C. § 621   Cited 17,464 times   21 Legal Analyses
    Finding that "older workers find themselves disadvantaged in their efforts to retain employment, and especially to regain employment when displaced from jobs"
  15. Rule 1 - Scope and Purpose

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 1   Cited 15,065 times   48 Legal Analyses
    Recognizing the federal rules of civil procedure should be employed to promote the "just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of every action and proceeding"
  16. Section 206 - Minimum wage

    29 U.S.C. § 206   Cited 8,832 times   99 Legal Analyses
    Asking only whether the alleged inequality resulted from “any other factor other than sex”
  17. Section 552a - Records maintained on individuals

    5 U.S.C. § 552a   Cited 4,439 times   47 Legal Analyses
    Finding that it is a Department of Justice component that has as its principal function the enforcement of criminal laws includ[ing] correctional authorities
  18. Section 1614.409 - Effect of filing a civil action

    29 C.F.R. § 1614.409   Cited 50 times
    Stating that: "Filing a civil action under § 1614.408 or § 1614.409 shall terminate Commission processing of the appeal"