52 Cited authorities

  1. Terry v. Ohio

    392 U.S. 1 (1968)   Cited 33,737 times   70 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a police officer who has reasonable suspicion of criminal activity may conduct a brief investigative stop
  2. Illinois v. Wardlow

    528 U.S. 119 (2000)   Cited 3,981 times   32 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "unprovoked flight upon noticing the police" can support the existence of probable cause
  3. United States v. Cortez

    449 U.S. 411 (1981)   Cited 5,410 times   10 Legal Analyses
    Holding that reasonable suspicion exists where an officer has "a particularized and objective basis for suspecting the particular person stopped of criminal activity"
  4. United States v. Brignoni-Ponce

    422 U.S. 873 (1975)   Cited 3,031 times   14 Legal Analyses
    Holding that it violated the Fourth Amendment to stop and "question [a vehicle's] occupants [about their immigration status] when the only ground for suspicion [was] that the occupants appear[ed] to be of Mexican ancestry"
  5. Elkins v. United States

    364 U.S. 206 (1960)   Cited 1,885 times   8 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "the imperative of judicial integrity" requires illegally gathered evidence to be suppressed
  6. People v. De Bour

    40 N.Y.2d 210 (N.Y. 1976)   Cited 2,064 times   6 Legal Analyses
    In People v. LaPene, 352 N.E.2d 562 (N.Y. 1976), the New York Court of Appeals laid out a sliding scale of justifiable police intrusion, short of probable cause to arrest, which specified three distinct levels of intrusion correlating the allowable intensity of police conduct to the nature and weight of the facts precipitating the intrusion.
  7. People v. Sandoval

    34 N.Y.2d 371 (N.Y. 1974)   Cited 2,159 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the trial court must balance the "probative worth of evidence of prior specific criminal, vicious or immoral acts on the issue of the defendant's credibility on the one hand, and on the other the risk of unfair prejudice to the defendant"
  8. People v. Hollman

    79 N.Y.2d 181 (N.Y. 1992)   Cited 727 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that reasonable suspicion was required before narcotics officers could approach a passenger in a bus terminal and ask for permission to search the person's bag
  9. People v. Walker

    83 N.Y.2d 455 (N.Y. 1994)   Cited 495 times
    Noting the general rule that "the nature and extent of cross-examination are matters that are entrusted to the sound discretion of the trial court"
  10. People v. Hayes

    97 N.Y.2d 203 (N.Y. 2002)   Cited 388 times

    1 Decided February 7, 2002. Appeal, by permission of an Associate Judge of the Court of Appeals, from an order of the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in the Third Judicial Department, entered December 14, 2000, which (1) reversed, on the law, a judgment of the Washington County Court (Philip A. Berke, J.), rendered upon a verdict convicting defendant of rape in the first degree, burglary in the second degree, and unlawful imprisonment in the second degree, and (2) remitted the case to Washington