39 Cited authorities

  1. Terry v. Ohio

    392 U.S. 1 (1968)   Cited 33,737 times   70 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a police officer who has reasonable suspicion of criminal activity may conduct a brief investigative stop
  2. Florida v. J. L.

    529 U.S. 266 (2000)   Cited 1,920 times   17 Legal Analyses
    Holding that anonymous tip that a person is carrying a gun is not sufficiently reliable to justify police officer's stop and frisk of that person
  3. Navarette v. California

    572 U.S. 393 (2014)   Cited 827 times   14 Legal Analyses
    Holding that using 911 to make a report is an "indicator of veracity" because it has "features that allow for identifying and tracing callers"
  4. Ybarra v. Illinois

    444 U.S. 85 (1979)   Cited 1,724 times   13 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a search warrant for a tavern and its bartender did not permit body searches of all the bar's patrons
  5. People v. De Bour

    40 N.Y.2d 210 (N.Y. 1976)   Cited 2,064 times   6 Legal Analyses
    In People v. LaPene, 352 N.E.2d 562 (N.Y. 1976), the New York Court of Appeals laid out a sliding scale of justifiable police intrusion, short of probable cause to arrest, which specified three distinct levels of intrusion correlating the allowable intensity of police conduct to the nature and weight of the facts precipitating the intrusion.
  6. People v. Hollman

    79 N.Y.2d 181 (N.Y. 1992)   Cited 727 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that reasonable suspicion was required before narcotics officers could approach a passenger in a bus terminal and ask for permission to search the person's bag
  7. People v. Hicks

    68 N.Y.2d 234 (N.Y. 1986)   Cited 516 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Determining when a de facto arrest has taken place requires looking to "what a reasonable man, innocent of any crime, would have thought had he been in the defendant's position"
  8. People v. Cantor

    36 N.Y.2d 106 (N.Y. 1975)   Cited 664 times
    Stating that officers are permitted to forcibly stop and detain a person for questioning where the officer has reasonable suspicion that a suspect has committed, is committing, or is about to commit a crime
  9. People v. Martinez

    80 N.Y.2d 444 (N.Y. 1992)   Cited 367 times   1 Legal Analyses
    In Martinez, we acknowledged that the “[d]efendant had a right to refuse to respond to a police inquiry and his flight when the officers approached could not, in and of itself, create a reasonable suspicion of criminal activity” (id. at 448, 591 N.Y.S.2d 823, 606 N.E.2d 951 [citation omitted]). Only after aggregating other compelling circumstances—namely that defendant was observed “removing an instrument known to the police to be used in concealing drugs”—did we find reasonable suspicion (id.).
  10. People v. Moore

    2006 N.Y. Slip Op. 1249 (N.Y. 2006)   Cited 215 times
    In Moore, we also said that “[a]n anonymous tip cannot provide reasonable suspicion to justify a seizure, except where that tip contains predictive information —such as information suggestive of criminal behavior—so that the police can test the reliability of the tip” (id. at 499, 814 N.Y.S.2d 567, 847 N.E.2d 1141 [emphasis added]).