60 Cited authorities

  1. Ricci v. DeStefano

    557 U.S. 557 (2009)   Cited 2,271 times   25 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a city's making promotion decisions based on race would violate Title VII without a "valid defense"
  2. Albemarle Paper Co. v. Moody

    422 U.S. 405 (1975)   Cited 2,485 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, in order to achieve "complete justice," district courts have the obligation to "render a decree which will so far as possible eliminate the discriminatory effects of the past as well as bar like discrimination in the future"
  3. Griggs v. Duke Power Co.

    401 U.S. 424 (1971)   Cited 2,651 times   31 Legal Analyses
    Holding that § 703(h) does not protect use of testing requirements with a disparate impact on racial minorities where the tests were not shown to be related to job performance
  4. Watson v. Fort Worth Bank Tr.

    487 U.S. 977 (1988)   Cited 1,207 times   7 Legal Analyses
    Holding that plaintiff has burden to show that a particular employment practice "caused the exclusion of applicants for jobs or promotions because of their membership in a protected group"
  5. Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio

    490 U.S. 642 (1989)   Cited 895 times   19 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "in cases where [the precise] labor market statistics [are] difficult if not impossible to ascertain, . . . [plaintiffs may rely on] certain other statistics . . . [so long as they] are equally probative"
  6. Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co.

    488 U.S. 469 (1989)   Cited 733 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the standard of review under the Equal Protection Clause is not dependent on the race of those burdened or benefitted by a particular classification
  7. Forrest v. Jewish Guild

    3 N.Y.3d 295 (N.Y. 2004)   Cited 1,020 times   1 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the McDonnell Douglas framework applies to discriminatory discharge claims brought pursuant to the NYSHRL
  8. Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education

    476 U.S. 267 (1986)   Cited 479 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that district court should respond to challenge to race-conscious relief by making "a factual determination that the employer had a strong basis in evidence for its conclusion that remedial action was necessary"
  9. Robinson v. Metro-North Commuter R.R. Co.

    267 F.3d 147 (2d Cir. 2001)   Cited 624 times   3 Legal Analyses
    Holding compensatory or punitive damages sometimes permissible under Rule 23(b)
  10. Kincaid v. Eberle

    464 U.S. 1018 (1983)   Cited 220 times
    Holding that "a plaintiff . . . cannot rely on attenuated possibilities that a jury would infer a discriminatory motive, but rather must come forward with sufficient evidence to establish a prima facie case and respond sufficiently to any rebuttal by the defendant to create a genuine issue of material fact"
  11. Section 2000e-2 - Unlawful employment practices

    42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2   Cited 23,442 times   125 Legal Analyses
    Providing that an employer is liable if an employee establishes that a protected characteristic was a motivating factor in an employment action
  12. Section 290 - Purposes of article

    N.Y. Exec. Law § 290   Cited 2,114 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Describing purpose of article as, inter alia, "to eliminate and prevent discrimination in employment"