80 Cited authorities

  1. Ricci v. DeStefano

    557 U.S. 557 (2009)   Cited 2,287 times   25 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a city's making promotion decisions based on race would violate Title VII without a "valid defense"
  2. Albemarle Paper Co. v. Moody

    422 U.S. 405 (1975)   Cited 2,487 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, in order to achieve "complete justice," district courts have the obligation to "render a decree which will so far as possible eliminate the discriminatory effects of the past as well as bar like discrimination in the future"
  3. Felder v. Casey

    487 U.S. 131 (1988)   Cited 1,028 times   1 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a state law imposing a 120–day notice-of-injury prerequisite for claims against governmental defendants is preempted in actions under 42 U.S.C. § 1983
  4. Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co.

    488 U.S. 469 (1989)   Cited 734 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the standard of review under the Equal Protection Clause is not dependent on the race of those burdened or benefitted by a particular classification
  5. Grutter v. Bollinger

    539 U.S. 306 (2003)   Cited 433 times   25 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a race-sensitive admissions program was narrowly tailored because the consideration of race was merely one factor in the decision-making process and individualized consideration was given to each applicant
  6. Forrest v. Jewish Guild

    3 N.Y.3d 295 (N.Y. 2004)   Cited 1,029 times   1 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the McDonnell Douglas framework applies to discriminatory discharge claims brought pursuant to the NYSHRL
  7. Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education

    476 U.S. 267 (1986)   Cited 479 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that district court should respond to challenge to race-conscious relief by making "a factual determination that the employer had a strong basis in evidence for its conclusion that remedial action was necessary"
  8. Lewis v. City of Chi.

    560 U.S. 205 (2010)   Cited 187 times   6 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the allegation that defendants excluded certain applicants below a certain score "caused a disparate impact... stated a cognizable claim"
  9. Bush v. Vera

    517 U.S. 952 (1996)   Cited 255 times   3 Legal Analyses
    Holding that race predominated when a legislature deliberately "spread the Black population" among several districts in an effort to "protect Democratic incumbents"
  10. Hayden v. County of Nassau

    180 F.3d 42 (2d Cir. 1999)   Cited 757 times
    Holding that designing a policy with a racially discriminatory purpose should not be construed as a facial classification when the policy does not explicitly, or in its application, distinguish between people on the basis of a protected category
  11. Section 1981 - Equal rights under the law

    42 U.S.C. § 1981   Cited 32,448 times   164 Legal Analyses
    Granting equal rights to "make and enforce contracts" without regard to race
  12. Rule 23 - Class Actions

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 23   Cited 26,317 times   1017 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, to certify a class, the court must find that "questions of law or fact common to class members predominate over any questions affecting only individual members"
  13. Section 2000e-2 - Unlawful employment practices

    42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2   Cited 23,539 times   128 Legal Analyses
    Providing that an employer is liable if an employee establishes that a protected characteristic was a motivating factor in an employment action
  14. Section 2000e-5 - Enforcement provisions

    42 U.S.C. § 2000e-5   Cited 23,339 times   120 Legal Analyses
    Holding charges must be made in writing, under oath, and contain all information as the Commission requires
  15. Section 50-E - Notice of claim

    N.Y. Gen. Mun. Law § 50-E   Cited 4,081 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Explaining that service of a notice of claim by "registered or certified mail" is complete when deposited with the postal service
  16. Section 290 - Purposes of article

    N.Y. Exec. Law § 290   Cited 2,130 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Describing purpose of article as, inter alia, "to eliminate and prevent discrimination in employment"
  17. Section 50-I - Presentation of tort claims; commencement of actions

    N.Y. Gen. Mun. Law § 50-I   Cited 977 times
    Providing statute of limitations for intentional tort claims against municipalities
  18. Section 15 - Power of governor to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons

    N.Y. Exec. Law § 15   Cited 245 times

    The governor has power to grant reprieves, commutations and pardons, after conviction, for all offenses, except treason and cases of impeachment, upon such conditions, and with such restrictions and limitations, as he may think proper, subject to the regulations provided in this article. N.Y. Exec. Law § 15

  19. Section 61 - Appointment and promotion

    N.Y. Civ. Serv. Law § 61   Cited 233 times
    Requiring appointment of one of three highest candidates on eligible list for appointments and promotions in the competitive class
  20. Section 52 - Presentation of claims for torts; commencement of actions

    N.Y. County Law § 52   Cited 196 times
    Stating that it is required for any claim arising at law or in equity