28 Cited authorities

  1. Bell Atl. Corp. v Twombly

    550 U.S. 544 (2007)   Cited 204,159 times   341 Legal Analyses
    Holding that conclusory allegations that the defendants acted unlawfully were insufficient to state a claim
  2. Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc.

    477 U.S. 242 (1986)   Cited 204,929 times   32 Legal Analyses
    Holding that summary judgment is not appropriate if "the dispute about a material fact is 'genuine,' that is, if the evidence is such that a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party"
  3. Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. v. Zenith Radio

    475 U.S. 574 (1986)   Cited 99,156 times   35 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, on summary judgment, antitrust plaintiffs "must show that the inference of conspiracy is reasonable in light of the competing inferences of independent action or collusive action that could not have harmed" them
  4. Monell v. New York City Dept. of Social Services

    436 U.S. 658 (1978)   Cited 53,480 times   13 Legal Analyses
    Holding local governments can be liable under § 1983 for customs or policies that result in constitutional deprivations
  5. Canton v. Harris

    489 U.S. 378 (1989)   Cited 13,148 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the city could be held liable for failing to train police officers in determining whether detainees needed medical care because of the likelihood that, absent proper training, the officers would default on their constitutional obligations
  6. Hope v. Pelzer

    536 U.S. 730 (2002)   Cited 5,950 times   3 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "[t]he obvious cruelty inherent" in putting inmates in certain wantonly "degrading and dangerous" situations provides officers "with some notice that their alleged conduct violate" the Eighth Amendment
  7. Pembaur v. Cincinnati

    475 U.S. 469 (1986)   Cited 7,774 times
    Holding that a county prosecutor's order to forcibly enter the plaintiff's clinic was a "municipal policy"
  8. Phillips v. County of Allegheny

    515 F.3d 224 (3d Cir. 2008)   Cited 13,446 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a district court need not permit a curative amendment if such amendment would be futile
  9. United States v. Lanier

    520 U.S. 259 (1997)   Cited 1,981 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding that courts should look to prior judicial decisions interpreting a statute in considering whether it is vague
  10. Camreta v. Greene

    563 U.S. 692 (2011)   Cited 769 times
    Holding that, when "a civil suit becomes moot pending appeal," we may "vacate the judgment below" so "no party is harmed by what we have called a preliminary adjudication"