18 U.S.C. § 1833
REFERENCES IN TEXTThe date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(D), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114-153 which was approved May 11, 2016.
AMENDMENTS2016- Pub. L. 114-153, §7(a)(1), (3), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114-153, §2(c), inserted "or create a private right of action for" after "prohibit" in introductory provisions.Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114-153, §7(a)(2), substituted "the disclosure of a trade secret in accordance with subsection (b)" for "the reporting of a suspected violation of law to any governmental entity of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, if such entity has lawful authority with respect to that violation".
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2016 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 114-153, §2(e), May 11, 2016, 130 Stat. 381, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections misappropriation of a trade secret (as defined in section of title 18, United States Code, as amended by this section) for which any act occurs on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 11, 2016]."and of this title] shall apply with respect to any
CONSTRUCTION OF 2016 AMENDMENT Pub. L. 114-153, §2(f), May 11, 2016, 130 Stat. 382, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sectionsand of this title] shall be construed to modify the rule of construction under section of title 18, United States Code, or to preempt any other provision of law."
APPLICABILITY OF SECTION 2 OF PUB. L. 114-153 TO OTHER LAWS Pub. L. 114-153, §2(g), May 11, 2016, 130 Stat. 382, provided that: "This section [amending this section and sectionsand of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] and the amendments made by this section shall not be construed to be a law pertaining to intellectual property for purposes of any other Act of Congress."
- the term "misappropriation" means-(A) acquisition of a trade secret of another by a person who knows or has reason to know that the trade secret was acquired by improper means; or(B) disclosure or use of a trade secret of another without express or implied consent by a person who-(i) used improper means to acquire knowledge of the trade secret;(ii) at the time of disclosure or use, knew or had reason to know that the knowledge of the trade secret was-(I) derived from or through a person who had used improper means to acquire the trade secret;(II) acquired under circumstances giving rise to a duty to maintain the secrecy of the trade secret or limit the use of the trade secret; or(III) derived from or through a person who owed a duty to the person seeking relief to maintain the secrecy of the trade secret or limit the use of the trade secret; or(iii) before a material change of the position of the person, knew or had reason to know that-(I) the trade secret was a trade secret; and(II) knowledge of the trade secret had been acquired by accident or mistake;
- trade secret
- the term "trade secret" means all forms and types of financial, business, scientific, technical, economic, or engineering information, including patterns, plans, compilations, program devices, formulas, designs, prototypes, methods, techniques, processes, procedures, programs, or codes, whether tangible or intangible, and whether or how stored, compiled, or memorialized physically, electronically, graphically, photographically, or in writing if-(A) the owner thereof has taken reasonable measures to keep such information secret; and(B) the information derives independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable through proper means by, another person who can obtain economic value from the disclosure or use of the information;