11 U.S.C. § 553

Current through P.L. 117-262 (published on www.congress.gov on 12/21/2022)
Section 553 - Setoff
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this section and in sections 362 and 363 of this title, this title does not affect any right of a creditor to offset a mutual debt owing by such creditor to the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case under this title against a claim of such creditor against the debtor that arose before the commencement of the case, except to the extent that-
(1) the claim of such creditor against the debtor is disallowed;
(2) such claim was transferred, by an entity other than the debtor, to such creditor-
(A) after the commencement of the case; or
(B)
(i) after 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition; and
(ii) while the debtor was insolvent (except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362(b)(6), 362(b)(7), 362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561); or
(3) the debt owed to the debtor by such creditor was incurred by such creditor-
(A) after 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition;
(B) while the debtor was insolvent; and
(C) for the purpose of obtaining a right of setoff against the debtor (except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362(b)(6), 362(b)(7), 362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561).
(b)
(1) Except with respect to a setoff of a kind described in section 362(b)(6), 362(b)(7), 362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, 561, 365(h), 546(h),or 365(i)(2) of this title, if a creditor offsets a mutual debt owing to the debtor against a claim against the debtor on or within 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition, then the trustee may recover from such creditor the amount so offset to the extent that any insufficiency on the date of such setoff is less than the insufficiency on the later of-
(A) 90 days before the date of the filing of the petition; and
(B) the first date during the 90 days immediately preceding the date of the filing of the petition on which there is an insufficiency.
(2) In this subsection, "insufficiency" means amount, if any, by which a claim against the debtor exceeds a mutual debt owing to the debtor by the holder of such claim.
(c) For the purposes of this section, the debtor is presumed to have been insolvent on and during the 90 days immediately preceding the date of the filing of the petition.

11 U.S.C. § 553

Pub. L. 95-598, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2602; Pub. L. 98-353, title III, §§395, 467, July 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 365, 380; Pub. L. 101-311, title I, §105, June 25, 1990, 104 Stat. 268; Pub. L. 103-394, title II, §§205(b), 222, title V, §501(d)(19), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4123, 4129, 4146; Pub. L. 109-8, title IX, §907(n), Apr. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 181.

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

LEGISLATIVE STATEMENTSSection 553 of the House amendment is derived from a similar provision contained in the Senate amendment, but is modified to clarify application of a two-point test with respect to setoffs.

SENATE REPORT NO. 95-989This section preserves, with some changes, the right of setoff in bankruptcy cases now found in section 68 of the Bankruptcy Act [section 108 of former title 11]. One exception to the right is the automatic stay, discussed in connection with proposed 11 U.S.C. 362. Another is the right of the trustee to use property under section 363 that is subject to a right of setoff.The section states that the right of setoff is unaffected by the bankruptcy code except to the extent that the creditor's claim is disallowed, the creditor acquired (other than from the debtor) the claim during the 90 days preceding the case while the debtor was insolvent, the debt being offset was incurred for the purpose of obtaining a right of setoff, while the debtor was insolvent and during the 90-day prebankruptcy period, or the creditor improved his position in the 90-day period (similar to the improvement in position test found in the preference section 547(c)(5)). Only the last exception is an addition to current law.As under section 547(f), the debtor is presumed to have been insolvent during the 90 days before the case.

EDITORIAL NOTES

AMENDMENTS2005-Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109-8, §907(n)(1), inserted "(except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362(b)(6), 362(b)(7), 362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561)" before semicolon.Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 109-8, §907(n)(2), inserted "(except for a setoff of a kind described in section 362(b)(6), 362(b)(7), 362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, or 561)" before period.Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109-8, §907(n)(3), substituted "362(b)(17), 362(b)(27), 555, 556, 559, 560, 561," for "362(b)(14)," in introductory provisions.1994-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103-394, §501(d)(19)(A), struck out before semicolon at end "other than under section 502(b)(3) of this title".Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103-394, §501(d)(19)(B), substituted "section 362(b)(14)," for "section 362(b)(14),,". Pub. L. 103-394, §222(b), which directed the amendment of section 553(b)(1) by inserting "546(h)," after "365(h)," was executed by making the insertion in section 553(b)(1) of this title to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Pub. L. 103-394, §205(b), substituted "365(h)" for "365(h)(2)".1990-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101-311 substituted "362(b)(7), 362(b)(14)," for "362(b)(7),".1984-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98-353 inserted ", 362(b)(7)," after "362(b)(6)", and substituted ", 365(h)(2), or 365(i)(2)" for "or 365(h)(1)".

STATUTORY NOTES AND RELATED SUBSIDIARIES

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2005 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 109-8 effective 180 days after Apr. 20, 2005, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before such effective date, except as otherwise provided, see section 1501 of Pub. L. 109-8 set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1994 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 103-394 effective Oct. 22, 1994, and not applicable with respect to cases commenced under this title before Oct. 22, 1994, see section 702 of Pub. L. 103-394 set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1984 AMENDMENTAmendment by Pub. L. 98-353 effective with respect to cases filed 90 days after July 10, 1984, see section 552(a) of Pub. L. 98-353 set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

claim
The term "claim" means-(A) right to payment, whether or not such right is reduced to judgment, liquidated, unliquidated, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, legal, equitable, secured, or unsecured; or(B) right to an equitable remedy for breach of performance if such breach gives rise to a right to payment, whether or not such right to an equitable remedy is reduced to judgment, fixed, contingent, matured, unmatured, disputed, undisputed, secured, or unsecured.
debt
The term "debt" means liability on a claim.(12A) The term "debt relief agency" means any person who provides any bankruptcy assistance to an assisted person in return for the payment of money or other valuable consideration, or who is a bankruptcy petition preparer under section 110, but does not include-(A) any person who is an officer, director, employee, or agent of a person who provides such assistance or of the bankruptcy petition preparer;(B) a nonprofit organization that is exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986;(C) a creditor of such assisted person, to the extent that the creditor is assisting such assisted person to restructure any debt owed by such assisted person to the creditor;(D) a depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) or any Federal credit union or State credit union (as those terms are defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act), or any affiliate or subsidiary of such depository institution or credit union; or(E) an author, publisher, distributor, or seller of works subject to copyright protection under title 17, when acting in such capacity.
debtor
The term "debtor" means person or municipality concerning which a case under this title has been commenced.(13A) The term "debtor's principal residence"-(A) means a residential structure if used as the principal residence by the debtor, including incidental property, without regard to whether that structure is attached to real property; and(B) includes an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a mobile or manufactured home, or trailer if used as the principal residence by the debtor.
entity
The term "entity" includes person, estate, trust, governmental unit, and United States trustee.
insolvent
The term "insolvent" means-(A) with reference to an entity other than a partnership and a municipality, financial condition such that the sum of such entity's debts is greater than all of such entity's property, at a fair valuation, exclusive of-(i) property transferred, concealed, or removed with intent to hinder, delay, or defraud such entity's creditors; and(ii) property that may be exempted from property of the estate under section 522 of this title;(B) with reference to a partnership, financial condition such that the sum of such partnership's debts is greater than the aggregate of, at a fair valuation-(i) all of such partnership's property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in subparagraph (A)(i) of this paragraph; and(ii) the sum of the excess of the value of each general partner's nonpartnership property, exclusive of property of the kind specified in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, over such partner's nonpartnership debts; and(C) with reference to a municipality, financial condition such that the municipality is-(i) generally not paying its debts as they become due unless such debts are the subject of a bona fide dispute; or(ii) unable to pay its debts as they become due.
petition
The term "petition" means petition filed under section 301, 302, 303 and 3 1504 of this title, as the case may be, commencing a case under this title.(42A) The term "production payment" means a term overriding royalty satisfiable in cash or in kind-(A) contingent on the production of a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon from particular real property; and(B) from a specified volume, or a specified value, from the liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon produced from such property, and determined without regard to production costs.