C.R.S. § 15-14-703
The Uniform Power of Attorney Act is intended to be comprehensive with respect to delegation of surrogate decision making authority over an individual's property and property interests, whether for the purpose of incapacity planning or mere convenience. Given that an agent will likely exercise authority at times when the principal cannot monitor the agent's conduct, the Act specifies minimum agent duties and protections for the principal's benefit. These provisions, however, may not be appropriate for all delegations of authority that might otherwise be included within the definition of a power of attorney. Section 15-14-703 lists delegations of authority that are excluded from the Act because the subject matter of the delegation, the objective of the delegation, the agent's role with respect to the delegation, or a combination of the foregoing, would make application of the Act's provisions inappropriate.
Paragraph (1)(a) excludes a power to the extent that it is coupled with an interest in the subject of the power. This exclusion addresses situations where, due to the agent's interest in the subject matter of the power, the agent is not intended to act as the principal's fiduciary. See Restatement (Third) of Agency § 3.12 (2006) and M.T. Brunner, Annotation, What Constitutes Power Coupled with Interest within Rule as to Termination of Agency, 28 A.L.R.2d 1243 (1953). Common examples of powers coupled with an interest include powers granted to a creditor to perfect or protect title in, or to sell, pledged collateral. While the example of "a power given to or for the benefit of a creditor in connection with a credit transaction" is highlighted in paragraph (1)(a), it is not meant to exclude application of paragraph (1) to other contexts in which a power may be coupled with an interest, such as a power held by an insurer to settle or confess judgment on behalf of an insured. See, e.g., Hayes v. Gessner, 52 N.E.2d 968 (Mass. 1944).
Paragraph (1)(b) excludes from the Act delegations of authority to make health-care decisions for the principal. Such delegations are covered under other law of the jurisdiction. The Act recognizes, however, that matters of financial management and health-care decision making are often interdependent. The Act consequently provides in Section 15-14-714(2)(e) a default rule that an agent under the Act must cooperate with the principal's health-care decision maker.
Likewise, paragraph (1)(c) excludes from the Act a proxy or other delegation to exercise voting rights or management rights with respect to an entity. The rules with respect to those rights are typically controlled by entity-specific statutes within a jurisdiction. See, e.g., Model Bus. Corp. Act § 7.22 (2002); Unif. Ltd. Partnership Act § 118 (2001); and Unif. Ltd. Liability Co. Act § 404(e) (1996). Notwithstanding the exclusion of such delegations from the operation of this Act, Section 209 contemplates that a power granted to an agent with respect to operation of an entity or business includes the authority to "exercise in person or by proxy . . . a right, power, privilege, or option the principal has or claims to have as the holder of stocks and bonds . . . ."(see paragraph (1)(e) of Section 15-14-732 ). Thus, while a person that holds only a proxy pursuant to an entity voting statute will not be subject to the provisions of this Act, an agent that is granted Section 15-14-732 authority is subject to the Act because the principal has given the agent authority that is greater than that of a mere voting proxy. In fact, typical entity statutes contemplate that a principal's agent or "attorney in fact" may appoint a proxy on behalf of the principal. See, e.g., Model Bus. Corp. Act § 7.22 (2002); Unif. Ltd. Partnership Act § 118 (2001); and Unif. Ltd. Liability Co. Act § 404(e) (1996).
Paragraph (1)(d) excludes from the Act any power created on a governmental form for a governmental purpose. Like the excluded powers in paragraphs (1)(b) and (1)(c), the authority for a power created on a governmental form emanates from other law and is generally for a limited purpose. Notwithstanding this exclusion, the Act specifically provides in paragraph (1)(g) of Section 15-14-726 that a grant of authority to an agent includes, with respect to that subject matter, authority to "prepare, execute, and file a record, report, or other document to safeguard or promote the principal's interest under a statute or governmental regulation." Section 15-14-726, paragraph (1)(h), further clarifies that the agent has the authority to "communicate with any representative or employee of a government or governmental subdivision, agency, or instrumentality, on behalf of the principal." The intent of these provisions is to minimize the need for a special power on a governmental form with respect to any subject matter over which an agent is granted authority under the Act.