As amended through June 28, 2023
Rule 2.116 - Summary Disposition(A) Judgment on Stipulated Facts.(1) The parties to a civil action may submit an agreed-upon stipulation of facts to the court.(2) If the parties have stipulated to facts sufficient to enable the court to render judgment in the action, the court shall do so.(B) Motion.(1) A party may move for dismissal of or judgment on all or part of a claim in accordance with this rule. A party against whom a defense is asserted may move under this rule for summary disposition of the defense. A request for dismissal without prejudice under MCL 600.2912c must be made by motion under MCR 2.116 and MCR 2.119.(2) A motion under this rule may be filed at any time consistent with subrule (D) and subrule (G)(1), but the hearing on a motion brought by a party asserting a claim shall not take place until at least 28 days after the opposing party was served with the pleading stating the claim.(C) Grounds. The motion may be based on one or more of these grounds, and must specify the grounds on which it is based: (1) The court lacks jurisdiction over the person or property.(2) The process issued in the action was insufficient.(3) The service of process was insufficient.(4) The court lacks jurisdiction of the subject matter.(5) The party asserting the claim lacks the legal capacity to sue.(6) Another action has been initiated between the same parties involving the same claim.(7) Entry of judgment, dismissal of the action, or other relief is appropriate because of release, payment, prior judgment, immunity granted by law, statute of limitations, statute of frauds, an agreement to arbitrate or to litigate in a different forum, infancy or other disability of the moving party, or assignment or other disposition of the claim before commencement of the action.(8) The opposing party has failed to state a claim on which relief can be granted.(9) The opposing party has failed to state a valid defense to the claim asserted against him or her.(10) Except as to the amount of damages, there is no genuine issue as to any material fact, and the moving party is entitled to judgment or partial judgment as a matter of law.(D) Time to Raise Defenses and Objections. The grounds listed in subrule (C) must be raised as follows: (1) The grounds listed in subrule (C)(1), (2), and (3) must be raised in a party's first motion under this rule or in the party's responsive pleading, whichever is filed first, or they are waived.(2) The grounds listed in subrule (C)(5), (6), and (7) must be raised in a party's responsive pleading, unless the grounds are stated in a motion filed under this rule prior to the party's first responsive pleading. Amendment of a responsive pleading is governed by MCR 2.118.(3) The grounds listed in subrule (C)(4) and the ground of governmental immunity may be raised at any time, regardless of whether the motion is filed after the expiration of the period in which to file dispositive motions under a scheduling order entered pursuant to MCR 2.401.(4) The grounds listed in subrule (C)(8), (9), and (10) may be raised at any time, unless a period in which to file dispositive motions is established under a scheduling order entered pursuant to MCR 2.401. It is within the trial court's discretion to allow a motion filed under this subsection to be considered if the motion is filed after such period.(E) Consolidation; Successive Motions.(1) A party may combine in a single motion as many defenses or objections as the party has based on any of the grounds enumerated in this rule.(2) No defense or objection is waived by being joined with one or more other defenses or objections.(3) A party may file more than one motion under this rule, subject to the provisions of subrule (F).(F) Motion or Affidavit Filed in Bad Faith. A party or an attorney found by the court to have filed a motion or an affidavit in violation of the provisions of MCR 1.109(D)(3)and (E) may, in addition to the imposition of other penalties prescribed by that rule, be found guilty of contempt.(G) Affidavits; Hearing.(1) Except as otherwise provided in this subrule, MCR 2.119 applies to motions brought under this rule. (a) Unless a different period is set by the court,(i) a written motion under this rule with supporting brief and any affidavits must be filed and served at least 21 days before the time set for the hearing, and (ii) any response to the motion (including brief and any affidavits) must be filed and served at least 7 days before the hearing.(iii) the moving party or parties may file a reply brief in support of the motion. Reply briefs must be confined to rebuttal of the arguments in the nonmoving party or parties' response brief and must be limited to 5 pages. The reply brief must be filed and served at least 4 days before the hearing.(iv) no additional or supplemental briefs may be filed without leave of the court.(b) If the court sets a different time for filing and serving a motion, or a response, or a reply brief, its authorization must be endorsed in writing on the face of the notice of hearing or made by separate order.(c) Except where electronic filing has been implemented, a copy of a motion, response (including brief and any affidavits), or reply brief filed under this rule must be provided by counsel to the office of the judge hearing the motion. The judge's copy must be clearly marked JUDGE'S COPY on the cover sheet; that notation may be handwritten. Where electronic filing has been implemented, a judge's copy shall not be required.(2) Except as to a motion based on subrule (C)(8) or (9), affidavits, depositions, admissions, or other documentary evidence may be submitted by a party to support or oppose the grounds asserted in the motion.(3) Affidavits, depositions, admissions, or other documentary evidence in support of the grounds asserted in the motion are required (a) when the grounds asserted do not appear on the face of the pleadings, or(b) when judgment is sought based on subrule (C)(10).(4) A motion under subrule (C)(10) must specifically identify the issues as to which the moving party believes there is no genuine issue as to any material fact. When a motion under subrule (C)(10) is made and supported as provided in this rule, an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of his or her pleading, but must, by affidavits or as otherwise provided in this rule, set forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial. If the adverse party does not so respond, judgment, if appropriate, shall be entered against him or her. (5) The affidavits, together with the pleadings, depositions, admissions, and documentary evidence then filed in the action or submitted by the parties, must be considered by the court when the motion is based on subrule (C)(1)-(7) or (10). Only the pleadings may be considered when the motion is based on subrule (C)(8) or (9). (6) Affidavits, depositions, admissions, and documentary evidence offered in support of or in opposition to a motion based on subrule (C)(1)-(7) or (10) shall only be considered to the extent that the content or substance would be admissible as evidence to establish or deny the grounds stated in the motion.(H) Affidavits Unavailable.(1) A party may show by affidavit that the facts necessary to support the party's position cannot be presented because the facts are known only to persons whose affidavits the party cannot procure. The affidavit must (a) name these persons and state why their testimony cannot be procured, and(b) state the nature of the probable testimony of these persons and the reason for the party's belief that these persons would testify to those facts.(2) When this kind of affidavit is filed, the court may enter an appropriate order, including an order (a) denying the motion, or(b) allowing additional time to permit the affidavit to be supported by further affidavits, or by depositions, answers to interrogatories, or other discovery.(I) Disposition by Court; Immediate Trial.(1) If the pleadings show that a party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law, or if the affidavits or other proofs show that there is no genuine issue of material fact, the court shall render judgment without delay.(2) If it appears to the court that the opposing party, rather than the moving party, is entitled to judgment, the court may render judgment in favor of the opposing party. (3) A court may, under proper circumstances, order immediate trial to resolve any disputed issue of fact, and judgment may be entered forthwith if the proofs show that a party is entitled to judgment on the facts as determined by the court. An immediate trial may be ordered if the grounds asserted are based on subrules (C)(1) through (C)(6), or if the motion is based on subrule (C)(7) and a jury trial as of right has not been demanded on or before the date set for hearing. If the motion is based on subrule (C)(7) and a jury trial has been demanded, the court may order immediate trial, but must afford the parties a jury trial as to issues raised by the motion as to which there is a right to trial by jury. (4) The court may postpone until trial the hearing and decision on a matter involving disputed issues of fact brought before it under this rule. (5) If the grounds asserted are based on subrule (C)(8), (9), or (10), the court shall give the parties an opportunity to amend their pleadings as provided by MCR 2.118, unless the evidence then before the court shows that amendment would not be justified.(J) Motion Denied; Case Not Fully Adjudicated on Motion.(1) If a motion under this rule is denied, or if the decision does not dispose of the entire action or grant all the relief demanded, the action must proceed to final judgment. The court may: (a) set the time for further pleadings or amendments required;(b) examine the evidence before it and, by questioning the attorneys, ascertain what material facts are without substantial controversy, including the extent to which damages are not disputed; and(c) set the date on which all discovery must be completed.(2) A party aggrieved by a decision of the court entered under this rule may: (a) seek interlocutory leave to appeal as provided for by these rules;(b) claim an immediate appeal as of right if the judgment entered by the court constitutes a final judgment under MCR 2.604(B); or(c) proceed to final judgment and raise errors of the court committed under this rule in an appeal taken from final judgment.Last amended May 1, 2017, effective 9/1/2017; amended August 30, 2018, effective 9/1/2018; amended September 18, 2019, effective 1/1/2020.