As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein shall have the meaning given them in the Act, in subpart A or subpart VVa of part 60; and the following terms shall have the specific meanings given them.
Acid gas means a gas stream of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been separated from sour natural gas by a sweetening unit.
Alaskan North Slope means the approximately 69,000 square-mile area extending from the Brooks Range to the Arctic Ocean.
API Gravity means the weight per unit volume of hydrocarbon liquids as measured by a system recommended by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and is expressed in degrees.
Artificial lift equipment means mechanical pumps including, but not limited to, rod pumps and electric submersible pumps used to flowback fluids from a well.
Bleed rate means the rate in standard cubic feet per hour at which natural gas is continuously vented (bleeds) from a pneumatic controller.
Capital expenditure means, in addition to the definition in, an expenditure for a physical or operational change to an existing facility that:
(1) Exceeds P, the product of the facility's replacement cost, R, and an adjusted annual asset guideline repair allowance, A, as reflected by the following equation: P = R * A, where:
(i) The adjusted annual asset guideline repair allowance, A, is the product of the percent of the replacement cost, Y, and the applicable basic annual asset guideline repair allowance, B, divided by 100 as reflected by the following equation: A = Y * (B ÷ 100);
(ii) The percent Y is determined from the following equation: Y = (CPI of date of construction/most recently available CPI of date of project), where the "CPI-U, U.S. city average, all items" must be used for each CPI value; and
(iii) The applicable basic annual asset guideline repair allowance, B, is 4.5.
Centrifugal compressor means any machine for raising the pressure of a natural gas by drawing in low pressure natural gas and discharging significantly higher pressure natural gas by means of mechanical rotating vanes or impellers. Screw, sliding vane, and liquid ring compressors are not centrifugal compressors for the purposes of this subpart.
Certifying official means one of the following:
(1) For a corporation: A president, secretary, treasurer, or vice-president of the corporation in charge of a principal business function, or any other person who performs similar policy or decision-making functions for the corporation, or a duly authorized representative of such person if the representative is responsible for the overall operation of one or more manufacturing, production, or operating facilities with an affected facility subject to this subpart and either:
(i) The facilities employ more than 250 persons or have gross annual sales or expenditures exceeding $25 million (in second quarter 1980 dollars); or
(ii) The Administrator is notified of such delegation of authority prior to the exercise of that authority. The Administrator reserves the right to evaluate such delegation;
(2) For a partnership (including but not limited to general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships) or sole proprietorship: A general partner or the proprietor, respectively. If a general partner is a corporation, the provisions of paragraph (1) of this definition apply;
(3) For a municipality, State, Federal, or other public agency: Either a principal executive officer or ranking elected official. For the purposes of this part, a principal executive officer of a Federal agency includes the chief executive officer having responsibility for the overall operations of a principal geographic unit of the agency (e.g., a Regional Administrator of EPA); or
(4) For affected facilities:
(i) The designated representative in so far as actions, standards, requirements, or prohibitions under title IV of the CAA or the regulations promulgated thereunder are concerned; or
(ii) The designated representative for any other purposes under this part.
Coil tubing cleanout means the process where an operator runs a string of coil tubing to the packed proppant within a well and jets the well to dislodge the proppant and provide sufficient lift energy to flow it to the surface. Coil tubing cleanout includes mechanical methods to remove solids and/or debris from a wellbore.
Collection system means any infrastructure that conveys gas or liquids from the well site to another location for treatment, storage, processing, recycling, disposal or other handling.
Completion combustion device means any ignition device, installed horizontally or vertically, used in exploration and production operations to combust otherwise vented emissions from completions. Completion combustion devices include pit flares.
Compressor station means any permanent combination of one or more compressors that move natural gas at increased pressure through gathering pipelines. This includes, but is not limited to, gathering and boosting stations. The combination of one or more compressors located at a well site, or located at an onshore natural gas processing plant, is not a compressor station for purposes of §.
Condensate means hydrocarbon liquid separated from natural gas that condenses due to changes in the temperature, pressure, or both, and remains liquid at standard conditions.
Continuous bleed means a continuous flow of pneumatic supply natural gas to a pneumatic controller.
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production source category means:
(1) Crude oil production, which includes the well and extends to the point of custody transfer to the crude oil transmission pipeline or any other forms of transportation; and
(2) Natural gas production and processing, which includes the well and extends to, but does not include, the point of custody transfer to the natural gas transmission and storage segment.
Custody meter means the meter where natural gas or hydrocarbon liquids are measured for sales, transfers, and/or royalty determination.
Custody meter assembly means an assembly of fugitive emissions components, including the custody meter, valves, flanges, and connectors necessary for the proper operation of the custody meter.
Custody transfer means the transfer of crude oil or natural gas after processing and/or treatment in the producing operations, or from storage vessels or automatic transfer facilities or other such equipment, including product loading racks, to pipelines or any other forms of transportation.
Dehydrator means a device in which an absorbent directly contacts a natural gas stream and absorbs water in a contact tower or absorption column (absorber).
Delineation well means a well drilled in order to determine the boundary of a field or producing reservoir.
Deviation means any instance in which an affected source subject to this subpart, or an owner or operator of such a source:
(1) Fails to meet any requirement or obligation established by this subpart including, but not limited to, any emission limit, operating limit, or work practice standard;
(2) Fails to meet any term or condition that is adopted to implement an applicable requirement in this subpart and that is included in the operating permit for any affected source required to obtain such a permit; or
(3) Fails to meet any emission limit, operating limit, or work practice standard in this subpart during startup, shutdown, or malfunction, regardless of whether or not such failure is permitted by this subpart.
Equipment, as used in the standards and requirements in this subpart relative to the equipment leaks of VOC from onshore natural gas processing plants, means each pump, pressure relief device, open-ended valve or line, valve, and flange or other connector that is in VOC service or in wet gas service, and any device or system required by those same standards and requirements in this subpart.
Field gas means feedstock gas entering the natural gas processing plant.
Field gas gathering means the system used transport field gas from a field to the main pipeline in the area.
First attempt at repair means, for the purposes of fugitive emissions components, an action taken for the purpose of stopping or reducing fugitive emissions to the atmosphere. First attempts at repair include, but are not limited to, the following practices where practicable and appropriate: Tightening bonnet bolts; replacing bonnet bolts; tightening packing gland nuts; or injecting lubricant into lubricated packing.
Flare means a thermal oxidation system using an open (without enclosure) flame. Completion combustion devices as defined in this section are not considered flares.
Flow line means a pipeline used to transport oil and/or gas to a processing facility or a mainline pipeline.
Flowback means the process of allowing fluids and entrained solids to flow from a well following a treatment, either in preparation for a subsequent phase of treatment or in preparation for cleanup and returning the well to production. The term flowback also means the fluids and entrained solids that emerge from a well during the flowback process. The flowback period begins when material introduced into the well during the treatment returns to the surface following hydraulic fracturing or refracturing. The flowback period ends when either the well is shut in and permanently disconnected from the flowback equipment or at the startup of production. The flowback period includes the initial flowback stage and the separation flowback stage. Screenouts, coil tubing cleanouts, and plug drill-outs are not considered part of the flowback process.
Fugitive emissions component means any component that has the potential to emit fugitive emissions of VOC at a well site or compressor station, including valves, connectors, pressure relief devices, open-ended lines, flanges, covers and closed vent systems not subject to §or § , thief hatches or other openings on a controlled storage vessel not subject to § or § , compressors, instruments, and meters. Devices that vent as part of normal operations, such as natural gas-driven pneumatic controllers or natural gas-driven pumps, are not fugitive emissions components, insofar as the natural gas discharged from the device's vent is not considered a fugitive emission. Emissions originating from other than the device's vent, such as the thief hatch on a controlled storage vessel, would be considered fugitive emissions.
Gas to oil ratio (GOR) means the ratio of the volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure that is produced from a volume of oil when depressurized to standard temperature and pressure.
Hydraulic fracturing means the process of directing pressurized fluids containing any combination of water, proppant, and any added chemicals to penetrate tight formations, such as shale or coal formations, that subsequently require high rate, extended flowback to expel fracture fluids and solids during completions.
Hydraulic refracturing means conducting a subsequent hydraulic fracturing operation at a well that has previously undergone a hydraulic fracturing operation.
In light liquid service means that the piece of equipment contains a liquid that meets the conditions specified in §or § .
In wet gas service means that a compressor or piece of equipment contains or contacts the field gas before the extraction step at a gas processing plant process unit.
Initial flowback stage means the period during a well completion operation which begins at the onset of flowback and ends at the separation flowback stage.
Intermediate hydrocarbon liquid means any naturally occurring, unrefined petroleum liquid.
Intermittent/snap-action pneumatic controller means a pneumatic controller that is designed to vent non-continuously.
Liquefied natural gas unit means a unit used to cool natural gas to the point at which it is condensed into a liquid which is colorless, odorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic.
Liquid collection system means tankage and/or lines at a well site to contain liquids from one or more wells or to convey liquids to another site.
Local distribution company (LDC) custody transfer station means a metering station where the LDC receives a natural gas supply from an upstream supplier, which may be an interstate transmission pipeline or a local natural gas producer, for delivery to customers through the LDC's intrastate transmission or distribution lines.
Low pressure well means a well that satisfies at least one of the following conditions:
(1) The static pressure at the wellhead following fracturing but prior to the onset of flowback is less than the flow line pressure;
(2) The pressure of flowback fluid immediately before it enters the flow line, as determined under §, is less than the flow line pressure; or
(3) Flowback of the fracture fluids will not occur without the use of artificial lift equipment.
Major production and processing equipment means reciprocating or centrifugal compressors, glycol dehydrators, heater/treaters, separators, and storage vessels collecting crude oil, condensate, intermediate hydrocarbon liquids, or produced water, for the purpose of determining whether a well site is a wellhead only well site.
Maximum average daily throughput means the following:
(1) For storage vessels that commenced construction, reconstruction, or modification after September 18, 2015, and on and before November 16, 2020, maximum average daily throughput means the earliest calculation of daily average throughput during the 30-day PTE evaluation period employing generally accepted methods.
(2) For storage vessels that commenced construction, reconstruction, or modification after November 16, 2020, maximum average daily throughput means the earliest calculation of daily average throughput, determined as described in paragraph (3) or (4) of this definition, to an individual storage vessel over the days that production is routed to that storage vessel during the 30-day PTE evaluation period employing generally accepted methods specified in §.
(3) If throughput to the individual storage vessel is measured on a daily basis (e.g., via level gauge automation or daily manual gauging), the maximum average daily throughput is the average of all daily throughputs for days on which throughput was routed to that storage vessel during the 30-day evaluation period; or
(4) If throughput to the individual storage vessel is not measured on a daily basis (e.g., via manual gauging at the start and end of loadouts), the maximum average daily throughput is the highest, of the average daily throughputs, determined for any production period to that storage vessel during the 30-day evaluation period, as determined by averaging total throughput to that storage vessel over each production period. A production period begins when production begins to be routed to a storage vessel and ends either when throughput is routed away from that storage vessel or when a loadout occurs from that storage vessel, whichever happens first. Regardless of the determination methodology, operators must not include days during which throughput is not routed to an individual storage vessel when calculating maximum average daily throughput for that storage vessel.
Maximum average daily throughput means the earliest calculation of daily average throughput during the 30-day PTE evaluation period employing generally accepted methods.
Natural gas-driven diaphragm pump means a positive displacement pump powered by pressurized natural gas that uses the reciprocating action of flexible diaphragms in conjunction with check valves to pump a fluid. A pump in which a fluid is displaced by a piston driven by a diaphragm is not considered a diaphragm pump for purposes of this subpart. A lean glycol circulation pump that relies on energy exchange with the rich glycol from the contactor is not considered a diaphragm pump.
Natural gas-driven pneumatic controller means a pneumatic controller powered by pressurized natural gas.
Natural gas liquids means the hydrocarbons, such as ethane, propane, butane, and pentane that are extracted from field gas.
Natural gas processing plant (gas plant) means any processing site engaged in the extraction of natural gas liquids from field gas, fractionation of mixed natural gas liquids to natural gas products, or both. A Joule-Thompson valve, a dew point depression valve, or an isolated or standalone Joule-Thompson skid is not a natural gas processing plant.
Natural gas transmission means the pipelines used for the long distance transport of natural gas (excluding processing). Specific equipment used in natural gas transmission includes the land, mains, valves, meters, boosters, regulators, storage vessels, dehydrators, compressors, and their driving units and appurtenances, and equipment used for transporting gas from a production plant, delivery point of purchased gas, gathering system, storage area, or other wholesale source of gas to one or more distribution area(s).
Natural gas transmission and storage segment means the transport or storage of natural gas prior to delivery to a "local distribution company custody transfer station" (as defined in this section) or to a final end user (if there is no local distribution company custody transfer station). For the purposes of this subpart, natural gas enters the natural gas transmission and storage segment after the natural gas processing plant, when present. If no natural gas processing plant is present, natural gas enters the natural gas transmission and storage segment after the point of "custody transfer" (as defined in this section). A compressor station that transports natural gas prior to the point of "custody transfer" or to a natural gas processing plant (if present) is not considered a part of the natural gas transmission and storage segment.
Nonfractionating plant means any gas plant that does not fractionate mixed natural gas liquids into natural gas products.
Non-natural gas-driven pneumatic controller means an instrument that is actuated using other sources of power than pressurized natural gas; examples include solar, electric, and instrument air.
Onshore means all facilities except those that are located in the territorial seas or on the outer continental shelf.
Plug drill-out means the removal of a plug (or plugs) that was used to isolate different sections of the well.
Pneumatic controller means an automated instrument used for maintaining a process condition such as liquid level, pressure, delta-pressure and temperature.
Pressure vessel means a storage vessel that is used to store liquids or gases and is designed not to vent to the atmosphere as a result of compression of the vapor headspace in the pressure vessel during filling of the pressure vessel to its design capacity.
Process unit means components assembled for the extraction of natural gas liquids from field gas, the fractionation of the liquids into natural gas products, or other operations associated with the processing of natural gas products. A process unit can operate independently if supplied with sufficient feed or raw materials and sufficient storage facilities for the products.
Produced water means water that is extracted from the earth from an oil or natural gas production well, or that is separated from crude oil, condensate, or natural gas after extraction.
Qualified Professional Engineer means an individual who is licensed by a state as a Professional Engineer to practice one or more disciplines of engineering and who is qualified by education, technical knowledge and experience to make the specific technical certifications required under this subpart. Professional engineers making these certifications must be currently licensed in at least one state in which the certifying official is located.
Reciprocating compressor means a piece of equipment that increases the pressure of a process gas by positive displacement, employing linear movement of the driveshaft.
Reciprocating compressor rod packing means a series of flexible rings in machined metal cups that fit around the reciprocating compressor piston rod to create a seal limiting the amount of compressed natural gas that escapes to the atmosphere, or other mechanism that provides the same function.
Recovered gas means gas recovered through the separation process during flowback.
Recovered liquids means any crude oil, condensate or produced water recovered through the separation process during flowback.
Reduced emissions completion means a well completion following fracturing or refracturing where gas flowback that is otherwise vented is captured, cleaned, and routed to the gas flow line or collection system, re-injected into the well or another well, used as an onsite fuel source, or used for other useful purpose that a purchased fuel or raw material would serve, with no direct release to the atmosphere.
Reduced sulfur compounds means H2S, carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2).
Removed from service means that a storage vessel affected facility has been physically isolated and disconnected from the process for a purpose other than maintenance in accordance with §.
Repaired means, for the purposes of fugitive emissions components, that fugitive emissions components are adjusted, replaced, or otherwise altered, in order to eliminate fugitive emissions as defined in §and resurveyed as specified in § and it is verified that emissions from the fugitive emissions components are below the applicable fugitive emissions definition.
Returned to service means that a storage vessel affected facility that was removed from service has been:
(1) Reconnected to the original source of liquids or has been used to replace any storage vessel affected facility; or
(2) Installed in any location covered by this subpart and introduced with crude oil, condensate, intermediate hydrocarbon liquids or produced water.
Routed to a process or route to a process means the emissions are conveyed via a closed vent system to any enclosed portion of a process that is operational where the emissions are predominantly recycled and/or consumed in the same manner as a material that fulfills the same function in the process and/or transformed by chemical reaction into materials that are not regulated materials and/or incorporated into a product; and/or recovered.
Salable quality gas means natural gas that meets the flow line or collection system operator specifications, regardless of whether such gas is sold.
Screenout means an attempt to clear proppant from the wellbore to dislodge the proppant out of the well.
Separation flowback stage means the period during a well completion operation when it is technically feasible for a separator to function. The separation flowback stage ends either at the startup of production, or when the well is shut in and permanently disconnected from the flowback equipment.
Startup of production means the beginning of initial flow following the end of flowback when there is continuous recovery of salable quality gas and separation and recovery of any crude oil, condensate, or produced water, except as otherwise provided in this definition. For the purposes of the fugitive monitoring requirements of §, startup of production means the beginning of the continuous recovery of salable quality gas and separation and recovery of any crude oil, condensate, or produced water.
Storage vessel means a tank or other vessel that contains an accumulation of crude oil, condensate, intermediate hydrocarbon liquids, or produced water, and that is constructed primarily of nonearthen materials (such as wood, concrete, steel, fiberglass, or plastic) which provide structural support. A well completion vessel that receives recovered liquids from a well after startup of production following flowback for a period which exceeds 60 days is considered a storage vessel under this subpart. A tank or other vessel shall not be considered a storage vessel if it has been removed from service in accordance with the requirements of §until such time as such tank or other vessel has been returned to service. For the purposes of this subpart, the following are not considered storage vessels:
(1) Vessels that are skid-mounted or permanently attached to something that is mobile (such as trucks, railcars, barges or ships), and are intended to be located at a site for less than 180 consecutive days. If you do not keep or are not able to produce records, as required by §, showing that the vessel has been located at a site for less than 180 consecutive days, the vessel described herein is considered to be a storage vessel from the date the original vessel was first located at the site. This exclusion does not apply to a well completion vessel as described above.
(2) Process vessels such as surge control vessels, bottoms receivers or knockout vessels.
(3) Pressure vessels designed to operate in excess of 204.9 kilopascals and without emissions to the atmosphere.
Sulfur production rate means the rate of liquid sulfur accumulation from the sulfur recovery unit.
Sulfur recovery unit means a process device that recovers element sulfur from acid gas.
Surface site means any combination of one or more graded pad sites, gravel pad sites, foundations, platforms, or the immediate physical location upon which equipment is physically affixed.
Sweetening unit means a process device that removes hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide from the sour natural gas stream.
Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) means the sum of the sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide as measured by Method 16 of appendix A-6 of this part.
Total SO2equivalents means the sum of volumetric or mass concentrations of the sulfur compounds obtained by adding the quantity existing as SO2 to the quantity of SO2 that would be obtained if all reduced sulfur compounds were converted to SO2 (ppmv or kg/dscm (lb/dscf)).
UIC Class I oilfield disposal well means a well with a UIC Class I permit that meets the definition inand receives eligible fluids from oil and natural gas exploration and production operations.
UIC Class II oilfield disposal well means a well with a UIC Class II permit where wastewater resulting from oil and natural gas production operations is injected into underground porous rock formations not productive of oil or gas, and sealed above and below by unbroken, impermeable strata.
Underground storage vessel means a storage vessel stored below ground.
Well means a hole drilled for the purpose of producing oil or natural gas, or a well into which fluids are injected.
Well completion means the process that allows for the flowback of petroleum or natural gas from newly drilled wells to expel drilling and reservoir fluids and tests the reservoir flow characteristics, which may vent produced hydrocarbons to the atmosphere via an open pit or tank.
Well completion operation means any well completion with hydraulic fracturing or refracturing occurring at a well affected facility.
Well completion vessel means a vessel that contains flowback during a well completion operation following hydraulic fracturing or refracturing. A well completion vessel may be a lined earthen pit, a tank or other vessel that is skid-mounted or portable. A well completion vessel that receives recovered liquids from a well after startup of production following flowback for a period which exceeds 60 days is considered a storage vessel under this subpart.
Well site means one or more surface sites that are constructed for the drilling and subsequent operation of any oil well, natural gas well, or injection well. For purposes of the fugitive emissions standards at §, well site also means a separate tank battery surface site collecting crude oil, condensate, intermediate hydrocarbon liquids, or produced water from wells not located at the well site (e.g., centralized tank batteries). Also, for the purposes of the fugitive emissions standards at § , a well site does not include:
(1) UIC Class II oilfield disposal wells and disposal facilities;
(2) UIC Class I oilfield disposal wells; and
(3) The flange immediately upstream of the custody meter assembly and equipment, including fugitive emissions components, located downstream of this flange.
Wellhead means the piping, casing, tubing and connected valves protruding above the earth's surface for an oil and/or natural gas well. The wellhead ends where the flow line connects to a wellhead valve. The wellhead does not include other equipment at the well site except for any conveyance through which gas is vented to the atmosphere.
Wellhead only well site means, for the purposes of the fugitive emissions standards at §, a well site that contains one or more wellheads and no major production and processing equipment.
Wildcat well means a well outside known fields or the first well drilled in an oil or gas field where no other oil and gas production exists.
40 C.F.R. §60.5430a