United States Court of Appeals, Fifth CircuitFeb 5, 1979
588 F.2d 1144 (5th Cir. 1979)

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23 Citing cases

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  • upholding the constitutionality of the statutes requiring the motto to be placed on currency and the statute criminalizing the defacement of the motto

    Summary of this case from Newdow v. Peterson

  • upholding national motto "In God We Trust"

    Summary of this case from Books v. City of Elkhart, Indiana

  • addressing a constitutional challenge to the motto "In God We Trust"

    Summary of this case from Van Orden v. Perry

No. 78-2101. Summary Calendar.

Rule 18, 5 Cir.; see Isbell Enterprises, Inc. v. Citizens Casualty Co. of New York et al., 5 Cir., 1970, 431 F.2d 409, Part I.

February 5, 1979.

Madalyn Murray O'Hair, pro se.

Jon Garth Murray, pro se.

Paul D. Funderburk, Austin, Tex., for plaintiff-appellant.

Barbara Allen Babcock, Asst. Atty. Gen., Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., Ronald R. Glancz, Mauricio A. Flores, Attys., Jamie C. Boyd, U.S. Atty., San Antonio, Tex., for defendants-appellees.

Patton G. Lochridge, Austin, Tex., David J. Anderson, Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., John L. Hill, Atty. Gen., State of Texas, Austin, Tex., for intervenor.

Appeal from the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas; Jack Roberts, Judge.

Before THORNBERRY, GODBOLD and RUBIN, Circuit Judges.


Plaintiffs question the constitutionality of 36 U.S.C. § 186 making "In God We Trust" a national motto; of 31 U.S.C. §§ 324 and 324(a) requiring the imprinting of the motto on the coin and currency of the United States; and of 18 U.S.C. §§ 331 and 333, which provide criminal penalties for removal of the national motto from United States coin and currency.

Pretermitting the issues of standing and case or controversy, which are not free from doubt, we affirm on the opinion of the district court, O'Hair et al v. Blumenthal et al., 462 F. Supp. 19 (W.D.Tex., 1978).