55 Cited authorities

  1. Ashcroft v. Iqbal

    556 U.S. 662 (2009)   Cited 195,191 times   262 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the sufficiency of the allegations is a legal question so appellate courts have jurisdiction to consider it on appeal from denial of qualified immunity
  2. Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly

    550 U.S. 544 (2007)   Cited 209,562 times   342 Legal Analyses
    Holding that conclusory allegations that the defendants acted unlawfully were insufficient to state a claim
  3. Celotex Corp. v. Catrett

    477 U.S. 317 (1986)   Cited 189,377 times   29 Legal Analyses
    Holding that there cannot be a genuine issue of material fact where the nonmoving party fails to make a sufficient showing to establish the existence of an essential element
  4. Nat'l R.R. Passenger Corp. v. Morgan

    536 U.S. 101 (2002)   Cited 8,514 times   32 Legal Analyses
    Holding limitations period for hostile-work-environment claim runs from the last act composing the claim
  5. Hishon v. King Spalding

    467 U.S. 69 (1984)   Cited 11,647 times   4 Legal Analyses
    Holding Title VII applies to selection for non-employee positions if consideration for that position can be regarded as one of "terms, conditions, or privileges of employment" of a covered job
  6. Conley v. Gibson

    355 U.S. 41 (1957)   Cited 53,887 times   28 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "a complaint should not be dismissed for failure to state a claim unless it appears beyond doubt that the plaintiff can prove no set of facts in support of his claim which would entitle him to relief"
  7. Hunt v. Cromartie

    526 U.S. 541 (1999)   Cited 2,389 times   1 Legal Analyses
    Holding that “[s]ummary judgment ... is inappropriate when the evidence is susceptible to different interpretations or inferences by the trier of fact”
  8. Fed. Express Corp. v. Holowecki

    552 U.S. 389 (2008)   Cited 940 times   12 Legal Analyses
    Holding that the EEOC "acted within its authority in formulating the rule that a filing is deemed a charge if the document reasonably can be construed to request agency action and appropriate relief on the employee’s behalf"
  9. Albemarle Paper Co. v. Moody

    422 U.S. 405 (1975)   Cited 2,507 times   5 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, in order to achieve "complete justice," district courts have the obligation to "render a decree which will so far as possible eliminate the discriminatory effects of the past as well as bar like discrimination in the future"
  10. Kowal v. MCI Communications Corp.

    16 F.3d 1271 (D.C. Cir. 1994)   Cited 1,621 times
    Holding that statements of optimism give rise to a strong inference of scienter if they lacked a reasonable basis when made
  11. Rule 56 - Summary Judgment

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 56   Cited 286,734 times   129 Legal Analyses
    Holding a party may move for summary judgment on any part of any claim or defense in the lawsuit
  12. Rule 12 - Defenses and Objections: When and How Presented; Motion for Judgment on the Pleadings; Consolidating Motions; Waiving Defenses; Pretrial Hearing

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 12   Cited 269,826 times   783 Legal Analyses
    Granting the court discretion to exclude matters outside the pleadings presented to the court in defense of a motion to dismiss
  13. Rule 8 - General Rules of Pleading

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 8   Cited 123,226 times   187 Legal Analyses
    Holding that "[e]very defense to a claim for relief in any pleading must be asserted in the responsive pleading. . . ."
  14. Rule 15 - Amended and Supplemental Pleadings

    Fed. R. Civ. P. 15   Cited 71,174 times   88 Legal Analyses
    Finding that, per N.Y. C.P.L.R. § 1024, New York law provides a more forgiving principle for relation back in the context of naming John Doe defendants described with particularity in the complaint
  15. Section 2000e-2 - Unlawful employment practices

    42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2   Cited 24,702 times   147 Legal Analyses
    Providing that an employer is liable if an employee establishes that a protected characteristic was a motivating factor in an employment action
  16. Section 1614.106 - Individual complaints

    29 C.F.R. § 1614.106   Cited 527 times   2 Legal Analyses
    Requiring administrative complaints to be filed with the complainant's agency
  17. Section 1614.107 - Dismissals of complaints

    29 C.F.R. § 1614.107   Cited 417 times   5 Legal Analyses
    Explaining the notice requirements for partial dismissal of claims in an EEO complaint