47 Cited authorities

  1. Whren v. United States

    517 U.S. 806 (1996)   Cited 7,106 times   37 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, upon observing traffic violation, officer may stop vehicle regardless of his subjective motivations, "as long as the circumstances, viewed objectively, justify that action"
  2. Terry v. Ohio

    392 U.S. 1 (1968)   Cited 33,856 times   70 Legal Analyses
    Holding that a police officer who has reasonable suspicion of criminal activity may conduct a brief investigative stop
  3. Devenpeck v. Alford

    543 U.S. 146 (2004)   Cited 2,255 times   13 Legal Analyses
    Holding that probable cause need not be for an "offense actually invoked at the time of arrest"
  4. Horton v. California

    496 U.S. 128 (1990)   Cited 2,770 times   13 Legal Analyses
    Holding in the Fourth Amendment context that “evenhanded law enforcement is best achieved by the application of objective standards of conduct, rather than standards that depend upon the subjective state of mind of the officer”
  5. Chimel v. California

    395 U.S. 752 (1969)   Cited 5,361 times   24 Legal Analyses
    Holding that, absent a search warrant, there is "no . . . justification" for searching an area not within a suspect's immediate control during an arrest
  6. Brown v. Illinois

    422 U.S. 590 (1975)   Cited 3,709 times   26 Legal Analyses
    Holding statement was fruit of Fourth Amendment violation where police "illegality . . . had a quality of purposefulness" as "[t]he impropriety of the arrest was obvious" and detectives acknowledged "that the purpose of their action was 'for investigation' or for 'questioning'"
  7. Pennsylvania v. Mimms

    434 U.S. 106 (1977)   Cited 2,853 times   15 Legal Analyses
    Holding that police officers may order individuals to exit a vehicle during a Terry traffic stop based in part on the "inordinate risk confronting an officer as he approaches a person seated in an automobile"
  8. United States v. Robinson

    414 U.S. 218 (1973)   Cited 3,043 times   24 Legal Analyses
    Holding that law enforcement officers are authorized to conduct a full search of every lawful custodial arrestee
  9. Rawlings v. Kentucky

    448 U.S. 98 (1980)   Cited 2,073 times   7 Legal Analyses
    Holding a similar admission as to the contents of a purse weighed against finding an expectation of privacy
  10. Sibron v. New York

    392 U.S. 40 (1968)   Cited 3,243 times   7 Legal Analyses
    Holding that appeal from conviction after service of sentence not moot if there may be collateral consequences